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Heavy Ion Caf é 1 st meeting ~Experiment side~. K. Ozawa Univ. of Tokyo. Signatures of QGP. (1) Average transverse momentum (2) Volume (3) Enhance of strangeness and charm (4) Enhance of anti-particles (5) Elliptic flow ( v 2 ) (6) Fluctuations conserved charges

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Heavy Ion Caf é 1 st meeting ~Experiment side~

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Heavy ion caf 1 st meeting experiment side

Heavy Ion Café1st meeting ~Experiment side~

K. Ozawa

Univ. of Tokyo


Signatures of qgp

Signatures of QGP

(1) Average transverse momentum

(2) Volume

(3) Enhance of strangeness and charm

(4) Enhance of anti-particles

(5) Elliptic flow (v2)

(6) Fluctuations conserved charges

(7) Suppression of high-pT hadrons

(8) Heavy quarkonium

(9) Modification of light vector mesons

(10) Thermal photons and dileptons

(1)

(6)

(2)

(7)

(3)

(8)

(4)

(9)

(5)

(10)

K. Yagi, T. Hatsuda, and Y. Miake, “Quark-Gluon Plasma”

Heavy Ion Cafe


In reality

In Reality

(1) Average transverse momentum

(2) Volume

(3) Enhance of strangeness and charm

(4) Enhance of anti-particles

(5) Elliptic flow (v2)

(6) Fluctuations conserved charges

(7) Suppression of high-pT hadrons

(8) Heavy quarkonium

(9) Modification of light vector mesons

(10) Thermal photons and dileptons

pT spectrum

HBT

Heavy flavor

Particle ratio

Elliptic flow

Event-by-Event fluctuation

Ratio to expectation (RAA)

J/y and Y

light vector mesons (r, w, f)

Photons and electron pairs

Near and away side Jet

Heavy Ion Cafe


Our activities and hi cafe

Our activities and HI Cafe

T. Chujo (M. Konno)

A. Enokizono

F. Kajihara and S. Sakai

M. Konno (T. Chujo)

H. Masui and S. Shimomura

T. Nakamura

T. Isobe

T. Gunji and S. Oda

Y. Nakamiya (and K. Ozawa)

K. Ozawa

pT spectrum

HBT

Heavy flavor

Particle ratio

Elliptic flow

Event-by-Event fluctuation

Ratio to expectation (RAA)

J/y and Y

light vector mesons (r, w, f)

Photons and electron pairs

Near and away side Jet

実際に解析をしている人に話してもらって、

各回にテーマを決めて、議論していきたい

Heavy Ion Cafe


Focus on jet quenching

A+A

p+p

Focus on Jet quenching

  • At RHIC, we can use high pT particles to diagnose the medium.

  • Measuring high pT particle yields:

    • Initial yields and pT distributions can be predicted from p+p measurements + pQCD + cold nuclear effects

    • Deviations can be attributed to the medium formed in A+A collisions

  • High pT particles (leading particles of jets) as p0, h can be measured in large BGs (dNch/dh ~ 700)

Heavy Ion Cafe


Observables

Observables

  • Yield suppression by medium effects

    • Comparison with p+p

      • Nuclear modification factor (RAA)

  • Light (and Heavy) mesons

  • Two (or three) particle correlation

  • Heavy Ion Cafe


    P 0 h measurements

    p0, h measurements


    The p p reference

    T

    The p+p Reference

    • nucl-ex/0610036

    h

    p0

    • Measurement at 200 GeV

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Initial state effects

    nucl-ex/0610036

    Initial State Effects?

    • New PHENIX paper on centrality dependence of p0+h in d+Au at 200 GeV

    • d+Au as collision system to look for initial state effects

    nucl-ex/0610036

    => no strong initial state effects

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Au au at 200 gev

    p (GeV/c)

    T

    Au+Au at 200 GeV

    • p0 data from RHIC run 2004

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    R aa at 200 gev

    RAA at 200 GeV

    <Peripheral to Central Au+Au Collision>

    • Stronger Suppression for more central collision.

    • 0 RAA is flat for all centrality for pT>5 GeV/c.

    • Difference between 0 and charged increases for pT < 5 GeV/c.


    Au au at 200 gev h

    Au+Au at 200 GeV (h)

    • h data from RHIC run 2004

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    R aa at 200 gev h

    RAA at 200 GeV (h)

    • h in Au+Au

    => Suppression by a factor of 5 in central events

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    R aa at 200 gev1

    RAA at 200 GeV

    • Direct g, p0 and h in Au+Au

      • Direct g RAA with measured p+p reference!

    0-10% central events

    • => RAA ofhandp0consistent, both show suppression

    • => RAA ofgis smaller than 1 at very high pT

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    R aa at different energies

    RAA at Different Energies

    • Comparison of p0 in Cu+Cu at 200, 62.4, and 22.4 GeV

      • Measured the same collision species over a broad energy range

    • Suppression gets larger with higher energies

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    R aa at different system size

    Both behave same at mid central.

    RAA at Different system size

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Sps and rhic

    SPS and RHIC

    • Same behavior for similar Npart (63 at WA98, 67.8 at PHENIX)

    Blattnig parameterization used for WA98 data (S. Blattnig et. al., Phys.Rev. D62 (2000) 094030 / D. D’Enterria, Phys. Lett. B 596 (2004) 32))

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Summary i

    Summary I

    • Strong suppression up to 20 GeV

    • suppression patternsof p0 and h are similar

    • Clear Collision Energy dependence

    • Consistent results for the same system size and the same energy

    Do these results mean jet energy loss in the medium?

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Comparison with models

    Comparison with models

    I. Vitev

    C. Loizides

    hep-ph/0608133v2

    Use RAA to extract medium density:

    W. Horowitz

    I. Vitev: 1000 < dNg/dy < 2000

    W. Horowitz: 600 < dNg/dy < 1600

    C. Loizides: 6 < < 24 GeV2/fm

    Statistical analysis to make optimal use of data

    Heavy Ion Cafe

    Caveat: RAA folds geometry, energy loss and fragmentation


    What do we learn from r aa

    What do we learn from RAA?

    GLV formalism

    BDMPS formalism

    ~15 GeV

    Wicks et al, nucl-th/0512076v2

    Renk, Eskola, hep-ph/0610059

    DE=15 GeV

    Energy loss distributions very different for BDMPS and GLV formalisms

    But RAA similar!

    Need more differential probes

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    R aa vs reaction plane

    Le

    RAA vs. Reaction Plane

    Au+Au collisions at 200GeV

    nucl-ex/0611007

    Out of Plane

    In Plane

    In plane emission shows no energy loss in peripheral bins.

    3<pT<5 GeV/c

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    R aa l e dependence

    50-60%

    0-10%

    RAA Le Dependence

    nucl-ex/0611007

    Au+Au collisions at 200GeV

    Le = matter thickness calculated in Glauber model

    Little/no energy loss for Le< 2 fm

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Heavy flavor

    Heavy Flavor

    p+p reference:

    Data (converter) for pT<1.6 [GeV/c]

    1.71*FONLL for pT>1.6 [GeV/c]

    Suppression level is the almost same as p0 and h in high pT region

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Summary ii

    Summary II

    • Several theoretical models can reproduce the experimental data.

    • To investigate the origin of yield suppression, need more probes

    • Reaction plane dependence of RAA is measured. Clear dependence on matter thickness is shown.

    • Measurements for Heavy flavor show the similar results in high-pT.

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Two or three particle correlation

    Two or Three particle correlation


    Correlations at rhic

    Trigger

    Associated

    

    Associated

    Higher pT→ Away-side suppression

    Lower pT→ Away-side enhancement

    pT(assoc) > 2 GeV/c

    pT(assoc) > 0.15 GeV/c

    Pedestal&flow subtracted

    4 < pT(trig) < 6 GeV/c

    STAR, PRL 91 (2003) 072304

    STAR, nucl-ex/0501016

     correlations at RHIC

     correlations

    • “Trigger-associated” technique valuable for tagging jets in high-multiplicity environment (vs. jet-cone algorithms)

    • Probes the jet’s interaction with the QCD medium

    • Provides stringent test of energy-loss models

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Dijet assoc yields i aa vs r aa

    8 < pT(trig) < 15 GeV/c

     = Near-side IAA

     = Away-side IAA

    IAA = Yield(0-5% Au+Au) Yield(d+Au)

    Dijet assoc. yields (IAA) vs. RAA

    STAR, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 072304

    • Near-side yields consistent with unity

    • Away-side associated yields similar to RAA values

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Centrality dependence

    Centrality dependence

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Z t distribution

    ZT Distribution

    • Yield in |Δφ|>0.9

    • ZT = pTassoc/pTtrig

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Heavy ion caf 1 st meeting experiment side

    IAA

    IAA = Yield(0-5% Au+Au) Yield(d+Au)

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Shape analysis

    Shape analysis

    On this figure,

    Shape analysis is done.

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Away side peak shape

    Away side peak shape

    • 3 fitting functions are used.

    • Shifted peak is at almost constant f.

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Jet functions phenix

    D

    Jet Functions (PHENIX)

    rms, kurtosis and D also independent of pT of associated hadrons - poses challenge to color Cerenkov models

    nucl-ex/0611019

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Interpretations

    Interpretations

    Gluon rad+Sudakov

    Mach Cone/Shock wave

    Cherenkov radiation

    T. Renk, J. Ruppert

    V. Koch, A. Majumder,

    X-N. Wang

    A. Polosa, C. Salgado

    Stöcker, Casseldery-Solana et al

    Also: Vitev, Phys. Lett. B630 (2005)

    Or large kT from radial flow or energy loss

    Fries, Armesto et al, Hwa

    Many explanations possible, need more input to conclude

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    3 particle correlations

    3-particle correlations

    Event by event

    deflection of jets

    Cone like structure

    in each event

    

    

    13

    13

    0

    

    0

    

    12

    12

    1: 3 < pt < 4 GeV/c (Jet Tag)

    2,3: 1 < pt < 2 GeV/c,

    3-particle Dj-Dj probes away-side structure:

    Distinguish event-by-event deflection vs conical (Mercedes) emission pattern

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Jet flow subtraction result

    Deflected Jet + Cone

    Elongated Away Side Jet

    Cone

    Near Side

    Jet - Flow Subtraction Result

    13

    12

    Diagonal and Off-diagonal structures are suggestive of conical emission at an angle of about 1.45 radians in central Au+Au.

    Centrality 0-12%

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    3 particle correlations1

    *

    *

    *

    *

    *

    High pT (1)

    f

    f

    q

    Df

    q

    13

    12

    12

    Same Side

    Assoc. pTs (2,3)

    _

    Away Side

    =

    D

    q*

    D

    =

    3-Particle Correlations

    (3 particles from di-jet) + (2 from dijet + 1 other)

    Df*=0

    Dq*=p

    PHENIX Preliminary

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Correlation topologies

    Df*=0

    Dq*=p

    PHENIX Preliminary

    triples/trigger (A.U.)

    PHENIX Preliminary

    Correlation Topologies

    Normal Jet

    (unmodified)

    Df* Azimuthal Section:

    Deflected Jet

    PHENIX Simulation

    (scattered jet axis)

    Cone Jet

    (medium excitation)

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Near side modification

    Near-Side Modification

    0-10% Central Cu+Cu

    0-20% Central Au+Au

    Trigger pT

    IAA = CYAA/CYPP

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Near side dh df correlations

    d+Au, 40-100%

    Au+Au, 0-5%

    Near side Dh-Df Correlations

    Phys. Rev. C73 (2006) 064907

    mid-central AuAu

    pt < 2 GeV

    • Near-side long range correlation in 

      • STAR, nucl-ex/0509030

      • near side “ridge”

    Dr/√rref

    3<pt,trigger<4 GeV

    pt,assoc.>2 GeV

    Au+Au 0-10%

    preliminary

    0.8< pt < 4 GeV

    nucl-ex/0607003

    See Poster by Ron Longacre

    3 < pT(trig) < 6 GeV2 < pT(assoc) < pT(trig)

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    G jet correlations

    Inclusive g-h

    Decay g-h contribution

    (via p0-hadron)

    Direct g-h !

    g-Jet Correlations

    p+p collisions at 200 GeV

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Comparison to pythia

    Comparison to Pythia

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    G jet correlations in auau

    g-Jet Correlations in AuAu

    Poster: M. Nguyen, N. Grau

    Talk: J. Jin (2.2.07)

    Heavy Ion Cafe


    Summary iii

    Summary III

    • We can see a clear away side suppression in two particle correlation.

    • In addition, away side broadening exists.

    • Analysis for three particle correlation is done. It suggests conical emission.

    Heavy Ion Cafe


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