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Association & Causation. Association. Ms Ashvarya Rai is associated with Mr Bacchan In Epidemiology association refers to a link between 2 or more factors Measures of Association: Relative Risk or Risk Ratio RR Risk Difference ( Attributable Risk) RD Odds Ratio OR ( show Apple) .

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association
Association
  • Ms Ashvarya Rai is associated with Mr Bacchan
  • In Epidemiology association refers to a link between 2 or more factors
  • Measures of Association:

Relative Risk or Risk Ratio RR

Risk Difference ( Attributable Risk) RD

Odds Ratio OR ( show Apple)

causation
Causation
  • Question- Egg or Hen first?
  • Temporality- Cause precede effect
  • Strength of Association
  • Dose response
  • Specificity
  • Biological Plausability
  • Consistency
  • Experimental Evidence
causes in scripture bhagwat geeta
Causes in ScriptureBhagwat Geeta
  • Panchaitaani mahaabaaho kaaranaani nibodha me;
  • Saankhye kritaante proktaani siddhaye sarvakarmanaam.
  • Learn from Me, O mighty-armed Arjuna, these five causes, as declared in the Sankhya system for the accomplishment of all actions!
  • Adhishthaanam tathaa kartaa karanam cha prithagvidham;
  • Vividhaashcha prithakcheshtaa daivam chaivaatra panchamam.
  • The body, the doer, the various senses, the different functions of various sorts, and the presiding Deity, also, the fifth,
  • Shareeravaangmanobhiryat karma praarabhate narah;
  • Nyaayyam vaa vipareetam vaa panchaite tasya hetavah.

Whatever action a man performs by his body, speech and mind, whether right or the reverse, these five are its causes.

Chapter 18; Slokes 13,14,15

causality
Causality
  • Always a constellation of component causes
  • Nothing is caused by a single cause
  • Sufficient cause: A set of minimal conditions or events needed to cause the onset of disease
  • Rothman’s Causal Pie model
confounding
Confounding
  • Confundere (Latin)- to confuse ( Bible)
  • It is a mixing of effects due to a third factor in the study – Pati, patni & vo draw
  • A factor is a confounder if:
    • Associated with exposure in nondiseased
    • Associated with disease in unexposed( prior knowledge)
    • Not an intermediate in pathways
    • Not a surrogate for an exposure
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