Association causation
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Association & Causation. Association. Ms Ashvarya Rai is associated with Mr Bacchan In Epidemiology association refers to a link between 2 or more factors Measures of Association: Relative Risk or Risk Ratio RR Risk Difference ( Attributable Risk) RD Odds Ratio OR ( show Apple) .

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Association & Causation

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Association causation

Association &Causation


Association

Association

  • Ms Ashvarya Rai is associated with Mr Bacchan

  • In Epidemiology association refers to a link between 2 or more factors

  • Measures of Association:

    Relative Risk or Risk Ratio RR

    Risk Difference ( Attributable Risk) RD

    Odds Ratio OR ( show Apple)


Causation

Causation

  • Question- Egg or Hen first?

  • Temporality- Cause precede effect

  • Strength of Association

  • Dose response

  • Specificity

  • Biological Plausability

  • Consistency

  • Experimental Evidence


Causes in scripture bhagwat geeta

Causes in ScriptureBhagwat Geeta

  • Panchaitaani mahaabaaho kaaranaani nibodha me;

  • Saankhye kritaante proktaani siddhaye sarvakarmanaam.

  • Learn from Me, O mighty-armed Arjuna, these five causes, as declared in the Sankhya system for the accomplishment of all actions!

  • Adhishthaanam tathaa kartaa karanam cha prithagvidham;

  • Vividhaashcha prithakcheshtaa daivam chaivaatra panchamam.

  • The body, the doer, the various senses, the different functions of various sorts, and the presiding Deity, also, the fifth,

  • Shareeravaangmanobhiryat karma praarabhate narah;

  • Nyaayyam vaa vipareetam vaa panchaite tasya hetavah.

    Whatever action a man performs by his body, speech and mind, whether right or the reverse, these five are its causes.

    Chapter 18; Slokes 13,14,15


Causality

Causality

  • Always a constellation of component causes

  • Nothing is caused by a single cause

  • Sufficient cause: A set of minimal conditions or events needed to cause the onset of disease

  • Rothman’s Causal Pie model


Confounding

Confounding

  • Confundere (Latin)- to confuse ( Bible)

  • It is a mixing of effects due to a third factor in the study – Pati, patni & vo draw

  • A factor is a confounder if:

    • Associated with exposure in nondiseased

    • Associated with disease in unexposed( prior knowledge)

    • Not an intermediate in pathways

    • Not a surrogate for an exposure


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