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Lipids. They do not mix with water. Examples: fats and steroids. LIPIDS ARE NEXT. WHAT DO THEY DO?. They are a great source of STORED ENERGY so we have it in the future. They INSULATE the body to maintain normal body temperature and they CUSHION the internal organs for protection.

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Lipids

Lipids

They do not mix with water.

Examples: fats and steroids


Lipids are next
LIPIDS ARE NEXT

WHAT DO THEY DO?

  • They are a great source of STORED ENERGY so we have it in the future.

  • They INSULATE the body to maintain normal body temperature and they CUSHION the internal organs for protection.

  • They produce hormones for the body called STERIODS

  • They waterproof surfaces of animals,plants, and fruits- these are waxes!

    THINK: Waterproof, insulate, steriods, energy, cushion… “WISE C”


Fats

  • Dietary fat consists largely of the molecule triglyceride.

    • Triglyceride is a combination of glycerol and three fatty acids.


Lipids some interesting info
LIPIDS…Some interesting info

Waterproofing...

  • Fruits produce a waxy coating to keep from drying out.

  • The cells in a tulip make a wax which helps coat the leaves.

  • Ear wax traps dust, sand, and other foreign particles from going deeper into the ear and causing damage.

  • Beeswax- a structural material to hold honey in the hive


  • Unsaturated fatty acids

    • Have less than the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons.

  • Saturated fatty acids

    • Have the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons.




  • Not all fats are unhealthy. acids, which can be unhealthy.

    • Some fats perform important functions in the body and are essential to a healthy diet.


Steroids
Steroids acids, which can be unhealthy.

  • Steroids are very different from fats in structure and function.

    • The carbon skeleton is bent to form four fused rings.

  • Cholesterol is the “base steroid” from which your body produces other steroids.

    • Example: sex hormones


Lipips some interesting info
LIPIPS…Some interesting info acids, which can be unhealthy.

Steriods...

There are many different types of steroids. They are all lipids. Their functions vary. Some common steroids are:

SEX STEROIDS ANABOLIC STERIODS

CHOLESTEROL

They increase muscle

Like testosterone and estrogen


Lipips some interesting info1
LIPIPS…Some interesting info acids, which can be unhealthy.

NATURAL STERIODS IN OUR BODY INCREASE MUSCLE GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT AND ARE GOOD. THE ILLEGAL ONES THAT ARE SYNTHETIC ARE BAD.

Some anabolic steroids are illegal

Steriods...

And can be dangerous and

very unhealthy


  • Some athletes use anabolic steroids to build up their muscles quickly.

    • However, these substances can pose serious health risks.


Lipids1
LIPIDS acids, which can be unhealthy.

WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?

  • In plants- in the seeds

  • ---------------------------------------------------

  • In animals- in adipose tissue, connective tissue, in animals

  • ---------------------------------------------------

  • Lipids make up the cell membrane of all cells.


Proteins
Proteins acids, which can be unhealthy.

  • A protein is a polymer constructed from amino acid monomers.

  • Proteins perform most of the tasks the body needs to function.


More on proteins
MORE ON PROTEINS… acids, which can be unhealthy.

The following slides give you a little more in depth info on things that are made of proteins…


Muscles ligaments tendons and bones
Muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones acids, which can be unhealthy.

Without these particular structural proteins, we would look more like this….


Well maybe not exactly
Well, maybe not exactly… acids, which can be unhealthy.


Hair skin and nails
Hair, Skin, and Nails acids, which can be unhealthy.


Microscope view of skin and nails
Microscope View of acids, which can be unhealthy.Skin and Nails

This is skin

This is a nail


Cell membrane
Cell Membrane acids, which can be unhealthy.

The cell membrane surrounds everything in a cell so it doesn’t

leak out. It is kind of like the balloon in a water balloon.

The cell membrane is made mostly of protein AND lipids.


Enzymes acids, which can be unhealthy.

Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions. If you didn’t have enzymes in your stomach to speed up digestion, the food would rot in your stomach because it would take so long!


HORMONES acids, which can be unhealthy.

Hormones are chemicals made in glands that are in one place in the body and then put into the blood to be used in another.

These are where the

hormone producing

glands are located

in your body.


The thyroid is found in the middle of your neck, by your voice box. Here is a picture of those cells secreting the thyroid hormone.

(The yellow stuff is

thyroid hormone)

Thyroid hormone regulates how fast your body uses energy.

If you have an over active thyroid, you use energy quickly and tend to be very thin and have a hard time putting on weight.

If you have an under active thyroid gland, you use energy very slowly and tend to carry more body fat and have a difficult time losing it.

Don’t be quick to think you have a thyroid problem if you are overweight, chances are it’s actually your eating and exercise habits!


Antibodies are part of the immune system. When something enters the body that isn’t supposed to be there, like certain bacteria, antibodies find the invader and stick themselves onto it. When a white blood cell finds the invader covered with antibodies, it knows it doesn’t belong there and kills it.

Antibodies


Proteins1
PROTEINS enters the body that isn

MADE UP OF...

Proteins are made of long chains (polymers) made of monomers. All proteins are made of the monomer…

AMINO ACID


The shapes of proteins are like a balled up piece of string
The shapes of proteins are like a balled up piece of string enters the body that isn

Amino Acid chain

All wound up


The monomers amino acids
The Monomers: Amino Acids enters the body that isn

  • All proteins are constructed from a common set of 20 kinds of amino acids.

  • Each amino acid consists of a central carbon atom bonded to four covalent partners.

    • A side group that is variable among all 20.


Proteins as polymers
Proteins as Polymers enters the body that isn

  • Cells link amino acids together by dehydration reactions.

    • The resulting bond between them is called a peptide bond.


Proteins2
PROTEINS enters the body that isn

WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?

  • In plant foods- in the cell membranes

  • In animal products- in the cell membranes- in the muscles or living things- cows, chicken, fish…



What determines protein structure
What Determines Protein Structure? affects its ability to function.

  • A protein’s shape is sensitive to the surrounding environment.

    • Unfavorable temperature and pH changes can cause a protein to unravel and lose its shape.

    • This is called denaturation.


Proteins3
Proteins affects its ability to function.


Proteins4
Proteins affects its ability to function.

Aside from the protein found in animal sources…protein can also be found in fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts. (it just does not have as many amino acids)


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