Lipids
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Lipids. They do not mix with water. Examples: fats and steroids. LIPIDS ARE NEXT. WHAT DO THEY DO?. They are a great source of STORED ENERGY so we have it in the future. They INSULATE the body to maintain normal body temperature and they CUSHION the internal organs for protection.

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Lipids

Lipids

They do not mix with water.

Examples: fats and steroids


Lipids are next

LIPIDS ARE NEXT

WHAT DO THEY DO?

  • They are a great source of STORED ENERGY so we have it in the future.

  • They INSULATE the body to maintain normal body temperature and they CUSHION the internal organs for protection.

  • They produce hormones for the body called STERIODS

  • They waterproof surfaces of animals,plants, and fruits- these are waxes!

    THINK: Waterproof, insulate, steriods, energy, cushion… “WISE C”


Lipids

Fats

  • Dietary fat consists largely of the molecule triglyceride.

    • Triglyceride is a combination of glycerol and three fatty acids.


Lipids some interesting info

LIPIDS…Some interesting info

Waterproofing...

  • Fruits produce a waxy coating to keep from drying out.

  • The cells in a tulip make a wax which helps coat the leaves.

  • Ear wax traps dust, sand, and other foreign particles from going deeper into the ear and causing damage.

  • Beeswax- a structural material to hold honey in the hive


Lipids

  • Unsaturated fatty acids

    • Have less than the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons.

  • Saturated fatty acids

    • Have the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons.


Lipids

Figure 3.15b


Lipids

  • Most animal fats have a high proportion of saturated fatty acids, which can be unhealthy.

    • Example: butter

  • Most plant oils tend to be low in saturated fatty acids.

    • Example: corn oil


Lipids

  • Not all fats are unhealthy.

    • Some fats perform important functions in the body and are essential to a healthy diet.


Steroids

Steroids

  • Steroids are very different from fats in structure and function.

    • The carbon skeleton is bent to form four fused rings.

  • Cholesterol is the “base steroid” from which your body produces other steroids.

    • Example: sex hormones


Lipips some interesting info

LIPIPS…Some interesting info

Steriods...

There are many different types of steroids. They are all lipids. Their functions vary. Some common steroids are:

SEX STEROIDS ANABOLIC STERIODS

CHOLESTEROL

They increase muscle

Like testosterone and estrogen


Lipips some interesting info1

LIPIPS…Some interesting info

NATURAL STERIODS IN OUR BODY INCREASE MUSCLE GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT AND ARE GOOD. THE ILLEGAL ONES THAT ARE SYNTHETIC ARE BAD.

Some anabolic steroids are illegal

Steriods...

And can be dangerous and

very unhealthy


Lipids

  • Synthetic anabolic steroids are controversial.

    • They are variants of testosterone.

  • Some athletes use anabolic steroids to build up their muscles quickly.

    • However, these substances can pose serious health risks.


Lipids1

LIPIDS

WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?

  • In plants- in the seeds

  • ---------------------------------------------------

  • In animals- in adipose tissue, connective tissue, in animals

  • ---------------------------------------------------

  • Lipids make up the cell membrane of all cells.


Proteins

Proteins

  • A protein is a polymer constructed from amino acid monomers.

  • Proteins perform most of the tasks the body needs to function.


More on proteins

MORE ON PROTEINS…

The following slides give you a little more in depth info on things that are made of proteins…


Muscles ligaments tendons and bones

Muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones

Without these particular structural proteins, we would look more like this….


Well maybe not exactly

Well, maybe not exactly…


Hair skin and nails

Hair, Skin, and Nails


Microscope view of skin and nails

Microscope View ofSkin and Nails

This is skin

This is a nail


Cell membrane

Cell Membrane

The cell membrane surrounds everything in a cell so it doesn’t

leak out. It is kind of like the balloon in a water balloon.

The cell membrane is made mostly of protein AND lipids.


Lipids

Enzymes

Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions. If you didn’t have enzymes in your stomach to speed up digestion, the food would rot in your stomach because it would take so long!


Lipids

HORMONES

Hormones are chemicals made in glands that are in one place in the body and then put into the blood to be used in another.

These are where the

hormone producing

glands are located

in your body.


Lipids

The thyroid is found in the middle of your neck, by your voice box. Here is a picture of those cells secreting the thyroid hormone.

(The yellow stuff is

thyroid hormone)

Thyroid hormone regulates how fast your body uses energy.

If you have an over active thyroid, you use energy quickly and tend to be very thin and have a hard time putting on weight.

If you have an under active thyroid gland, you use energy very slowly and tend to carry more body fat and have a difficult time losing it.

Don’t be quick to think you have a thyroid problem if you are overweight, chances are it’s actually your eating and exercise habits!


Lipids

Antibodies are part of the immune system. When something enters the body that isn’t supposed to be there, like certain bacteria, antibodies find the invader and stick themselves onto it. When a white blood cell finds the invader covered with antibodies, it knows it doesn’t belong there and kills it.

Antibodies


Proteins1

PROTEINS

MADE UP OF...

Proteins are made of long chains (polymers) made of monomers. All proteins are made of the monomer…

AMINO ACID


The shapes of proteins are like a balled up piece of string

The shapes of proteins are like a balled up piece of string

Amino Acid chain

All wound up


The monomers amino acids

The Monomers: Amino Acids

  • All proteins are constructed from a common set of 20 kinds of amino acids.

  • Each amino acid consists of a central carbon atom bonded to four covalent partners.

    • A side group that is variable among all 20.


Proteins as polymers

Proteins as Polymers

  • Cells link amino acids together by dehydration reactions.

    • The resulting bond between them is called a peptide bond.


Proteins2

PROTEINS

WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?

  • In plant foods- in the cell membranes

  • In animal products- in the cell membranes- in the muscles or living things- cows, chicken, fish…


Lipids

  • A slight change in the primary structure of a protein affects its ability to function.

    • The substitution of one amino acid for another in hemoglobin causes sickle-cell disease.


What determines protein structure

What Determines Protein Structure?

  • A protein’s shape is sensitive to the surrounding environment.

    • Unfavorable temperature and pH changes can cause a protein to unravel and lose its shape.

    • This is called denaturation.


Proteins3

Proteins


Proteins4

Proteins

Aside from the protein found in animal sources…protein can also be found in fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts. (it just does not have as many amino acids)


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