Factual conditionals
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Factual Conditionals. Ron Cowan, Ph.D. PP slides: Yuri Vedrashko November 2006. If the gas is heated , it expend s . If she play s bridge with him, they always lose big. If she want s to go skiing, that’ s what they do. If Jim doesn’t find his passport, he may be deported.

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Factual Conditionals

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Factual conditionals

Factual Conditionals

Ron Cowan, Ph.D.

PP slides:Yuri Vedrashko

November 2006


Factual conditionals

  • If the gas is heated, it expends.

  • If she plays bridge with him, they always lose big.

  • If she wants to go skiing, that’s what they do.

  • If Jim doesn’t find his passport, he may be deported.

  • If he’s vacationing in Florida now, he’s probably getting a great tan.

  • It must be Bill if that call is for me.

  • If he has an IQ of 182, then I’m another Einstein!

  • If anyone has a clue here, it must be Jane.


General types

General types

Factual conditionals express a fact and can be

Timeless

Time-bound


Factual conditionals1

Factual conditionals

Can be further broken down into

A Timeless

  • Generic

  • Habitual

    B Time-bound

  • Implicit inference

  • Explicit inference


Factual conditionals2

Factual conditionals

A Timeless

  • Generic


Factual timeless generic

Factual / timeless / generic

  • If the gas is heated, it expends.

  • If the temperature is below “0”, the water freezes.

  • If the water is heated, it evaporates.

    Meaning:a fact that holds for all time, such as a scientific truth

    Form:The main verb is in Present tense in both clauses


Factual conditionals3

Factual conditionals

A Timeless

  • Generic

  • Habitual


Factual timeless habitual

Factual / timeless / habitual

  • If she plays bridge with him, they always lose big.

  • If she wanted to go skiing, that’s what they did.

  • Whenever (if) he takes her on a trip, they always get into a fight over where to stay.

    Meaning:past or present relationships that are usually but not always true.

    Form:The main verb is in Present or Past tense in both clauses. It also occurs with <whenever>.


Factual conditionals4

Factual conditionals

A Timeless

  • Generic

  • Habitual

    B Time-bound

  • Implicit inference


Factual time bound implicit inference

Factual / time-bound / implicit inference

  • If we can save the bald eagle from extinction, we can certainly ensure the survival of all endangered species.

  • If we can eliminate air pollution in Deli, we can do it everywhere.

  • If you can beat Federer, you can sweep all the rest of them.

    Meaning:If-clause indicates an event that is bounded in time. The result clause refers to an action or event that can be logically inferred from this.

    Form:The main verb is in Present tense in both clauses. Modal verbs <may and can> are often used too.


Factual conditionals5

Factual conditionals

A Timeless

  • Generic

  • Habitual

    B Time-bound

  • Implicit inference

  • Explicit inference


Factual time bound explicit inference

Factual / time-bound / explicit inference

  • If it’s still snowing out there, my car must be covered.

  • If that call is for me, it should be Sam.

  • If the door was locked, then the thief musthave come through the window.

  • If he has a villa here, he must be rich.

    Meaning:An explicit inference is made in the result-clause about some time-bound event, action or fact.

    Form:Modal verbs <must, should>, along with <be… probably, likely>, are often used. Also a wider range of tenses can occur in both clauses.


More on explicit inference

More onexplicit inference

Meaning:Sarcastic statements often take the form of explicit inference conditionals

Form:Present tense

Examples:

  • If he has an IQ of 182, then I’m another Einstein!

  • If this man is guilty, then who is not?


Factual conditionals6

Factual conditionals

A Timeless

  • Generic

  • Habitual

    B Time-bound

  • Implicit inference

  • Explicit inference


The end of factual conditionals

The end of Factual conditionals

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