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# Factual Conditionals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Factual Conditionals. Ron Cowan, Ph.D. PP slides: Yuri Vedrashko November 2006. If the gas is heated , it expend s . If she play s bridge with him, they always lose big. If she want s to go skiing, that’ s what they do. If Jim doesn’t find his passport, he may be deported.

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### Factual Conditionals

Ron Cowan, Ph.D.

PP slides:Yuri Vedrashko

November 2006

• If the gas is heated, it expends.

• If she plays bridge with him, they always lose big.

• If she wants to go skiing, that’s what they do.

• If Jim doesn’t find his passport, he may be deported.

• If he’s vacationing in Florida now, he’s probably getting a great tan.

• It must be Bill if that call is for me.

• If he has an IQ of 182, then I’m another Einstein!

• If anyone has a clue here, it must be Jane.

Factual conditionals express a fact and can be

Timeless

Time-bound

Can be further broken down into

A Timeless

• Generic

• Habitual

B Time-bound

• Implicit inference

• Explicit inference

A Timeless

• Generic

Factual / timeless / generic

• If the gas is heated, it expends.

• If the temperature is below “0”, the water freezes.

• If the water is heated, it evaporates.

Meaning:a fact that holds for all time, such as a scientific truth

Form:The main verb is in Present tense in both clauses

A Timeless

• Generic

• Habitual

Factual / timeless / habitual

• If she plays bridge with him, they always lose big.

• If she wanted to go skiing, that’s what they did.

• Whenever (if) he takes her on a trip, they always get into a fight over where to stay.

Meaning:past or present relationships that are usually but not always true.

Form:The main verb is in Present or Past tense in both clauses. It also occurs with <whenever>.

A Timeless

• Generic

• Habitual

B Time-bound

• Implicit inference

Factual / time-bound / implicit inference

• If we can save the bald eagle from extinction, we can certainly ensure the survival of all endangered species.

• If we can eliminate air pollution in Deli, we can do it everywhere.

• If you can beat Federer, you can sweep all the rest of them.

Meaning:If-clause indicates an event that is bounded in time. The result clause refers to an action or event that can be logically inferred from this.

Form:The main verb is in Present tense in both clauses. Modal verbs <may and can> are often used too.

A Timeless

• Generic

• Habitual

B Time-bound

• Implicit inference

• Explicit inference

Factual / time-bound / explicit inference

• If it’s still snowing out there, my car must be covered.

• If that call is for me, it should be Sam.

• If the door was locked, then the thief musthave come through the window.

• If he has a villa here, he must be rich.

Meaning:An explicit inference is made in the result-clause about some time-bound event, action or fact.

Form:Modal verbs <must, should>, along with <be… probably, likely>, are often used. Also a wider range of tenses can occur in both clauses.

More onexplicit inference

Meaning:Sarcastic statements often take the form of explicit inference conditionals

Form:Present tense

Examples:

• If he has an IQ of 182, then I’m another Einstein!

• If this man is guilty, then who is not?

A Timeless

• Generic

• Habitual

B Time-bound

• Implicit inference

• Explicit inference

What would you like to do now?

• Back to the Introduction

• Future conditionals

• Imaginative conditionals