The colonial era
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 17

THE COLONIAL ERA PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

THE COLONIAL ERA. Chapter 5. COLONIAL PRECEDENTS. Eastern North America French/English wars (Seven Years War) ended in NA in 1759 British/US claim for control until 1846 British claim – Royal Proclamation 1763 included policies for dealing with First Nations

Download Presentation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

The colonial era


Chapter 5

Colonial precedents


  • Eastern North America

    • French/English wars (Seven Years War) ended in NA in 1759

    • British/US claim for control until 1846

    • British claim – Royal Proclamation 1763

      • included policies for dealing with First Nations

      • based on nation to nation relationship

      • settlers not to colonize on Aboriginal land until agreements reached

      • guiding principles from making treaties based on lands belonged to First Nations people

  • the precedents set, did not happen in BC

From fur trade to gold rush


  • gold rush a greater transformation to lifestyle than fur trade

  • Fort Victoria 1843

    • large harbor and agricultural land

    • became capital of new colony

  • Colony of Vancouver Island

    • leased to HBC for 10 yrs

    • administered the colony and continue fur-trading

    • first governor – Blanshard

    • James Douglas

      • established first government policies having an impact on First Nations

    • colony established without negotiation with or consideration to First Nations

      • presence of First Nations irrelevant

The colonial era

  • furs as main economic resource but also traded minerals

    • coal and gold

    • Kwakwaka’wakw and Snuneymuxw traded coal and pointed out sources

      • HBC starting mining (Fort Rupert and Nanaimo)

The colonial era

  • gold in the Fraser

    • HBC encouraged First Nations to look for more

      • paid for prospecting equipment

    • Douglas tried to keep discovery of gold a secret

      • prevent lawlessness

      • 1858 word got out and thousands of miners into Victoria and Fraser

      • Stolo Nation called these new immigrants Xwelitem

        • meant “hungry people” or “starving people”

        • referring to the thousands of poorly provisioned miners

The colonial era

  • gold rush moved place to place as exhausted in one area and found in another

    • miners traveled on traditional First Nations land

      • ignored traditional use of land

      • disturbed environment – mining and building communities

      • no respect for First Nations

    • some First Nations became miners

      • resented by other miners

The colonial era

  • new Colony of British Columbia 1858

    • headquarters at New Westminster

    • influx of miners created new transportation routes

      • roads needed for easy access

      • Chilcotin War (case study pg 84)

    • British justice

      • Matthew Baillie Begbie judged many early cases throughout BC

    • James Douglas governed both colonies until 1864

      • 2 colonies too expensive

        • joined in 1866

Laurier memorial


In 1910 Prime Minister Sir Wilfred Laurier toured BC on an election campaign and held meetings with Aboriginal delegations in Kamloops, Victoria, Metlakatla, and Prince Rupert. The Laurier Memorial is a rare historical document expressing a First Nations point of view of the historical events of colonization. Although written in English, the language reflects Secwepemc oral style. In 1987, the Secwepemc Chiefs reaffirmed the Laurier Memorial. It has since been used as evidence in a number of court cases.

Read the excerpt on page 82.

What inherent Aboriginal beliefs and assumptions are implicit in this document? (3)

On 25 August 1910 First Nations chiefs signed a proclamation to the prime minister of Canada, Sir Wilfred Laurier, demanding that their land rights be settled. They included, from left: Kamloops Chief Louis; Bonaparte Chief Basil David; and Douglas Lake Chief  John Chelahitsa (right).

Colonial policies


  • James Douglas – Chief Factor HBC and Governor from 1851-1864

    • immense power over lives and lands of First Nations

    • given clear instructions on colonial policy – recognize Aboriginal title to land and negotiate treaty (87)

      • Douglas Treaties 1850-1854

      • 14 treaties – 927 km2

      • land surrendered for cash, clothing or blankets

      • kept existing village sites and fields, rights to hunt and fisheries

The colonial era

  • no negotiations after 1854

    • British policy changed to recreating English style

    • instead of treaties moved to “Indian Reserves”

      • believed helping survival of First Nations

    • given parcel of lands but owned by Crown

    • encouraged to pre-empt land as other foreigners

      • to build and be part of the English community

      • however, outcry from European and American settlers fearing First Nations taking best land

Pre empt


To pre-empt land (known elsewhere as homesteading) was the main form of land settlement by immigrants in North America. In Canada, British subjects were given 160 acres of land free, as long as they cleared the land and started farming on it. During the Douglas administration, First Nations people were encouraged to pre-empt land, but after Douglas left, the laws were changed to forbid them from pre-empting. (87)

The colonial era

  • Douglas fought to defend rights of First Nations land

    • colonial policy assumed First Nations would quickly assimilate into society

    • First Nations same as British immigrants

      • same rights as British settlers

    • however, left some wrong impressions to future

      • ignored important idea of Aboriginal title

      • policy of allotting only 10 acres per family

Original Documents (87)

Instructions to Governor Douglas

The colonial office’s letter of instructions to James Douglas clearly acknowledges that the First Nations were considered to be the rightful possessors of the land. However, the British only regarded land that was cultivated or that had permanent buildings standing on it to be owned by First Nations people. They had no understanding of the complex systems of land use and ownership that had existed for thousands of years.

With respect to the rights of the natives, you will have to confer with the chief of the tribes on that subject, and in your negotiations with them you are to consider the natives as the rightful possessors of such lands only as they are occupied by cultivation, or had houses built on, at the time when the Island came under the undivided sovereignty of Great Britain in 1846. All other land is to be regarded as waste, and applicable to the purposes of colonization… The right of fishing and hunting will be continued to [the natives], and when their lands are registered, and they conform to the same conditions with which other settlers are required to comply, they will enjoy the same rights and privileges.

The colonial era

  • Joseph Trutch succeeded Douglas in admin First Nations

    • stated First Nations of BC never owned land

      • contradicted Royal Proclamation 1763, British colonial policy and intent of Douglas Treaties

    • was consistent with general feeling of settlers

      • land was empty and free for the taking

      • act of making reserves was a generous gift

    • removed the right of First Nations to pre-empt land

Gunboat justice


  • violence and threat of violence commonly used to keep order

  • the might of the British Empire imposed throughout the world by the British Navy

    • base at Esquimalt (near Victoria)

    • “gunboats” were stationed

    • First Nations committed an offence, the cry of “Send out the gunboats”

The colonial era

  • crime of murder

    • possible reasons: inter-tribal war, conflicts between First Nations and new settlers of land, protest

    • Government and settlers feared violence of murder would get out of hand

      • needed to be stopped by show of force

      • government believed brute force was only form of justice First Nations understood

The colonial era

  • commander of ship would try to arrest accused person, if met by resistance:

    • sent in the marines to take hostages

    • still failed, threaten to destroy village and show of force

    • sometimes seized canoes to stop escape

    • carried out threat and whole village blasted along with canoes and any people remaining

The colonial era

  • at least 14 major incidents occurred where villages were threatened

    • most disastrous –Nuu-chah-nulth groups in 1864 had 9 villages destroyed between Barkley Sound and Clayoquot Sound, and 64 canoes

    • last incident of destruction was Kimsquit1877

    • threats as late as 1888 on Skeena River

  • captured suspects hanged either on spot or Victoria or New Westminster

  • heavy handed justice left whole tribe with sentence

    • houses destroyed

    • people dispersed to other villages

    • no canoes = couldn’t harvest food or other resources needed for survival

  • Login