Fallacies illogical statements in arguments
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Fallacies: Illogical Statements in Arguments PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Fallacies: Illogical Statements in Arguments. Disclaimer: The examples provided in no way represent the views or opinions of Mr. Busch or Ms. Munoz. They simply serve as illustrations of each fallacy. What Are Fallacies?.

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Fallacies: Illogical Statements in Arguments

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Fallacies: Illogical Statements in Arguments

Disclaimer: The examples provided in no way represent the views or opinions of Mr. Busch or Ms. Munoz. They simply serve as illustrations of each fallacy.


What Are Fallacies?

  • Fallacies are arguments that have faulty reasoning due to questionable assumptions and leaps in logic.


Ad Hominem

  • When the speaker attacks the opposition, focusing the attention on insults rather than logical appeals, then ad hominem (“to the man”) is the fallacy being employed.


Bandwagon Appeal

  • When the author suggests everyone else is doing something, so the reader should do it, too, he / she is using the bandwagon appeal.


Begging the Question

  • Begging the questions is circular logic. The writer is presenting an assertion to prove an assertion.


False Analogies

  • False analogies (syllogisms) are created when the writer makes illogical comparisons to items that may at first seem similar but that are quite different when examined closely.


Faulty Causality

  • Also known as post hoc, ergo propter hoc (“after this, therefore because of this”), faulty causality suggests a situation exists due to a previous incident when, in fact, the two events are not even related to each other.


Hasty Generalizations

  • Basically, hasty generalizations are stereotypes where the author makes false assumptions that are based on insufficient evidence.


Slippery Slope

  • The slippery slope will suggest that a current issue will cause a catastrophic event in the near future.


Scare Tactics

  • The author who uses scare tactics is appealing to the reader’s fear about a situation, usually when there really is no cause for such alarm.


Either-or-Choices

  • Also known as the black-and-white fallacy, either-or simplifies a complicated issue as one that allows for only two choices.


Overly Sentimental

  • The writer who uses overly sentimental appeals is mercilessly pulling at the heartstrings of the audience; he / she is being melodramatic.


False Authority

  • Using false authority is a fallacy because it abuses ethos. The author refers to a figure many people will neither recognize nor respect.

  • (Like Paris Hilton ever ate a burger.)


Dogmatism

  • In dogmatism, the writer’s stance is the only acceptable argument. There can be no opposing viewpoint (according to the author).


Stacking the Deck

  • By stacking the deck, a writer focuses on one side of an argument. It is not a fair presentation of the issue.


Equivocation

  • To equivocate is to provide half-truths.


Non Sequitur

  • Any time an assertion is made that does not have a relationship with the argument, the author is using a non sequitur.


Straw Man

  • The writer uses the straw man tactic when he/ she challenges a made up argument, which is usually much easier to tackle than the one his/ her opponent would actually present.


Red Herring

  • The red herring changes the subject in the middle of an argument.


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