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An analysis of human movement: Joints, Muscles and Mechanics in specified sporting actions ( including planes and axes). What you need to know: Analyse shoulder and elbow action in push-ups, over-arm throwing and forehand racket strokes

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An analysis of human movement:Joints, Muscles and Mechanics in specified sporting actions (including planes and axes)

What you need to know:

Analyse shoulder and elbow action in push-ups, over-arm throwing and forehand racket strokes

Analyse hip, knee and ankle action in running, kicking, jumping and squats.

Types of Muscular Contractions:

Understand the types of contraction- Concentric, Eccentric and Isometric related to the examined sporting actions.


Starter Activity: Assessment for Learning

Identify the ‘joint action’, ‘main agonist’ and the ‘type of muscle contraction’ occurring during the different types of sporting action.

Muscular

Contraction

Sporting Action

Joint

Action

Main

Agonist


Rec cap understanding analysing movement
Rec-capUnderstanding & Analysing Movement

Planes of Movement

Axes of the body

Frontal

Transverse or horizontal axis

Transverse

Longitudinal Axis

Sagittal


Types of muscle action
Types of Muscle Action

Isometric

Constant length (no movement)

Isotonic

Isokinetic

Constant speed of movement

Concentric

(shortening

under tension)

Eccentric

(Lengthening

under tension)


Types of muscular contraction
Types of Muscular Contraction

  • Concentric contraction

  • This is when a muscle shortens under tension, e.g., during the upward phase of an arm curl, the biceps brachii performs a concentric contraction as it shortens to produce flexion of the elbow.

  • Key term: concentric contraction when a muscle shortens under tension


Types of muscular contraction1
Types of Muscular Contraction

  • Eccentric contraction

  • This is when the muscle lengthens under tension (and does not relax). When a muscle contracts eccentrically it is acting as a brake in helping to control the movement of a body part during negative work. An example could be in landing from a standing jump. Here the quadriceps are performing negative work as they are supporting the weight of the body during landing. The knee joint is in the flexed position but the quadriceps are unable to relax as the weight of the body ensures that they lengthen under tension.

  • Key term: eccentric contraction when a muscle lengthens under tension.


Types of muscular contraction2
Types of Muscular Contraction

  • Isometric contraction

  • This is when a muscle can contract without actually lengthening or shortening and the

  • result is that no movement occurs. An isometric contraction occurs when a muscle is acting as a fixator or acting against a resistance.

  • Key term: isometric contraction when a muscle is under tension but there is no visible movement


Afl check
AFL: Check

  • Player your cards right!


Tasks to tackle
Tasks to tackle:

Complete the table below when performing a press-up.

Push Up Progression

  • Perform the downward phase of a press-up

    • What is happening at the elbow joint?

    • Which muscle is contracting?

    • What type of contraction is it performing?

  • Now perform the upward phase of a press-up

    • What is happening at the elbow joint?

    • Which muscle is contracting?

    • What type of contraction is it performing?

  • Try to hold the press-up in the downward phase

    • Which muscle feels as if it is contracting

    • What type of contraction is it performing?


Tasks to tackle1
Tasks to tackle:

Complete the table below when performing a press-up.

Push Up Progression


Afl check1
AFL: Check

  • Past Questions

  • Peer (Red: Pen)





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