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Large Display User Interaction. Mary Czerwinski, Senior Researcher Microsoft Research. Thanks to my Colleagues. Desney Tan George Robertson Greg Smith Patrick Baudisch Brian Meyers Gary Starkweather. Ignore Science Fiction at Our Peril. Workstation in the world of the Matrix.

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Large display user interaction l.jpg

Large Display User Interaction

Mary Czerwinski,

Senior Researcher

Microsoft Research

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


Thanks to my colleagues l.jpg
Thanks to my Colleagues

  • Desney Tan

  • George Robertson

  • Greg Smith

  • Patrick Baudisch

  • Brian Meyers

  • Gary Starkweather

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Ignore Science Fiction at Our Peril

Workstation in the world of the Matrix

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Large Display Surfaces are Here

Workstation in the real world

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Why A Larger Display Surface?

  • Productivity benefits 15-30% (despite OS issues)

  • Users prefer more display surface

  • Prices dropping fast

  • Footprints getting smaller

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Use Multimon

No Multimon

32%

30%

Plan to Use

Multimon

38%

Multimon Trend is Growing

(Jon Peddie Research

Dec, 2002 N=6652)

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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2004 Large Monitor ASP Projections

16:9 x 22” Diagonal

20”Diagonal

2 x 17” (30” Diagonal)

$1000

Relative Pricing

2 x 15” (26” Diagonal)

17”Diagonal

15”Diagonal

Single

Multiple

Wide

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Note: All Prices are for Liquid Crystal Displays

Source for Single Panel Pricing: IDC and Display Search


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Large Display User Experience, MSR

  • Large display surfaces fundamentally change user interaction

    • Visualization, input techniques, work management, …

  • Large display surfaces provide non-linear productivity increases

    • Additional space has different utility

    • E.g. Focal/peripheral displays provide different cues

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Windows and Task Management Issues Emerge

  • Larger displays = more open windows

  • Multimon users arrange windows spatially

  • TaskBar does not scale:

    • Aggregation model not task-based

    • Users can’t operate on groups of related windows

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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DEMOS: High Density Cursor

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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INPUT: Drag ‘n Pop

  • Problems:

    • Large displays create long distance mouse movement

    • Drag ‘n Pop brings proxies of targets to the user from across display surfaces

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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DEMO: GroupBar

  • GroupBar joins related items in the taskbar and remembers spatial layouts of tasks

  • To help solve this problem, Shell needs to remember Windows’ states between sessions

  • Download: \\gregsmi2\dowloads\groupbar.exe

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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DEMO: GroupBar Layouts

  • Windows management time-consuming

    • Screen real estate often gets wasted during layout

  • Solution—Smart Windows Layout Options

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Advanced UI: Scalable Fabric

  • Configurable central focus + peripheral context areas

  • Easy task switch from periphery to focus area

  • Personally meaningful layouts are preserved by system

  • Leverages human spatial memory

  • Proximity determines group membership

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Women Take a Wider View (CHI 2002)

  • Grew from work designing and evaluating 3D virtual navigation techniques

  • On regular desktop display:

    • Men performed significantly better than women

  • On exploratory widescreen display:

    • Overall improvement for all users

  • Surprising finding:

    • Gender gap disappeared - Males and females performed equally on widescreen display

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Related Work

  • Formation of cognitive maps while navigating 3D virtual worlds

    • Spatial abilities

    • Artifacts (maps, landmarks,…)

  • Gender differences in spatial ability and navigation strategies

    • Most report male advantages, especially in virtual environments

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Related Work: Optical Flow

  • Changing retinal image as we move through the environment

    • Aids perception of environmental structure

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Related Work: Optical Flow

  • Changing retinal image as we move through the environment

    • Aids perception of environmental structure

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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What we know about Optical Flow

  • Optical flow benefits heading perception in active navigation

    • Shown for fields of view up to 90 degrees

  • Hypothesized that effectiveness of optical flow depends on spatial ability

    • [Cutmore et al. 2000]

    • Gender unexplored

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Our Hypotheses

  • Optical flow cues help all users form better cognitive maps when navigating 3D virtual environments

  • Better optical flow cues help women more than men in cognitive map formation

  • Wider displays offer even better optical flow cues

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Dsharp Display

43"

11"

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Task: General Description

  • Learning: User controls movement along path through virtual 3D maze

  • Testing: Remember path traveled

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Virtual Maps

  • 14 rooms (6 straight ahead, 8 turns)

  • Some paths go through same room twice

    For example:

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Cognitive Map Learning

  • Use arrow keys to go through green door

  • Determine if path crosses itself

  • Remember full path

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Cognitive Map Memory Test

  • Tested on memory for maze

    • Forward test and backward test

    • Measured task time & number of correct doors opened on first attempt

  • Same controls as in learning phase, but without green door guides

  • Given feedback

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Experimental Design

Female

Male

Small FOV: 100 degrees

Large FOV: 120 degrees

Optical Flow

Absent

Optical Flow

Present

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Experimental Procedure

  • Paper folding test of spatial ability

  • 1 practice trial + 4 test trials

  • Satisfaction questionnaire

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Benefits of Optical Flow

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Optical Flow Helps All Users in Forward Test

Forward

Backward

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Optical Flow Benefits Females More in the Forward Test

Females

Males

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Other Results

  • No effects for field of view

  • No effects for spatial ability measure

  • Satisfaction ratings matched performance results

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Conclusion

  • Optical flow cues help all users form better cognitive maps when navigating 3D virtual environments

  • Better optical flow cues help women more than men in cognitive map formation

    • Unexplained by biases in spatial ability

  • Wider displays offer even better optical flow cues

    • 100 degree field of view seems sufficient

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Information Voyeurism: Social Impact of Large Displays

  • Exploit social cues induced by physical size:

    • Help people communicate

    • Increase productivity on individual tasks

  • Must quantify in order to exploit

  • Information on large displays more public

    • Ask user? Cannot guarantee accuracy

    • Video? Cannot disambiguate glance from reading

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Measuring ‘Peeking’

  • Implicit memory priming paradigm

    • Expose user to stimulus

    • Test user implicitly on how much they’ve processed stimulus

      • Word stem completion

      • Eg. Mon_____

    • Priming measured by faster response or higher frequency of stimulus

      • Monkey, Money, Monster, Monday, Monopoly, …

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Experiment Materials

  • Stimulus: 30 words embedded in:

    • 7 e-mail subject lines

    • 2 e-mail messages

  • Place e-mail where it can be seen by user

  • Priming test to see if they’ve read it

    • Word stem completion

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


Experimental setup l.jpg

114″

66″

16″

27.5″

Large Projection

Screen

156″

Small

Desktop Monitor

38″

Experimenter

Participant

Experimental Setup

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Implicit Memory Results

N=12

Average # of Target Words

N=12

Small Display

Large Display

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Other Converging Data

  • More users admitted reading text on:

    • Large Screen (7/12) vs.

      Small Screen (3/12)

  • Comments indicated reading someone else’s e-mail more acceptable on large screen

  • Video shows users glanced more at:

    • Large Screen (M=19 seconds) vs.

      Small Screen (M=14 seconds)

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Future Work

  • Understand why large displays more public

    • Physical proximity of information to owner?

    • Wall-mounted nature of large display?

  • Protect private information from prying eyes

    • Private information never placed on public screens

    • Interface conventions that convey level of privacy

  • Facilitate ad hoc collaboration

    • Display systems that make people interact more

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Summary

  • Novel application of implicit memory priming paradigm for measuring if someone has peeked at information

  • People are more willing to read someone else’s e-mail on large wall-sized displays than on smaller displays

    • Even with identical visual angles and legibility

  • Future Work

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Future Research Directions

  • Continue researching benefits of and methods for testing large displays

  • Task management for information workers

  • Reconfigurable information display surfaces

    • Heterogeneous devices

  • Social impact, collaboration and communication scenarios

  • Gestures, vision and tracking

  • Novel UI and interaction techniques

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Thank you…

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Large Display Surfaces are Here

Workstation in the real world (InfoCockpit--CMU)

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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Optical Flow Benefits All Users Equally in the Backward Test

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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User Views of Maze

Narrow field of view (100 degrees)

Wide field of view (120 degrees)

© 2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


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