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Automaticity of Everyday Life. Lectures 5 & 6: Automaticity of Everyday Life. Bargh, J.A., & Chartrand, T.L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist , 54 , 462-479.

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Lectures 5 6 automaticity of everyday life

Lectures 5 & 6:Automaticity of Everyday Life

Bargh, J.A., & Chartrand, T.L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist, 54, 462-479.

Dijksterhuis, A., & Bargh, J.A. (2001). The perception-behavior expressway: Automatic effects of social perception on social behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 1-40.

Lakin, J.L., Jefferis, V.E., Cheng, C.M., & Chartrand, T.L. (2003). The chameleon effect as social glue: Evidence for the evolutionary significance of nonconscious mimicry. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 27, 145-162.

Lecture 5 – Behavioural Priming

Lecture 6 – Nonconscious Mimicry


Varieties of automatic behaviour
Varieties of Automatic Behaviour

Action Priming

Interpersonal Mimicry


Automaticity a framework for thinking about mental life
Automaticity:A Framework For Thinking About Mental Life

  • the case of the daydreaming driver!

  • components of mental life

    automatic vs. controlled processes (Bargh, 1989)

  • 4 ‘horsemen’ of automaticity

    awareness

    intention

    efficiency

    control


The ecology of automaticity
The Ecology of Automaticity

  • So what exactly is an automatic process?

  • Are we aware of the causes of behavior?

    Awareness

    3 ways in which we may be unaware of a mental process


Awareness
Awareness

  • we may be unaware of the presence of a stimulus (e.g., subliminal priming).

  • we may be unaware of the way in which a stimulus has been interpreted or categorized.

  • we may be unaware of factors (e.g., stimulus appraisal) that influence our behaviour.

    So what role does awareness play in the elicitation of behaviour?


Intentionality
Intentionality:

  • the intentionality aspect of automaticity refers to how much control we have over our thoughts and behaviour. Intentionality has to do with whether we are in control of the instigation of a process.

    So do intentions give rise to our everyday actions and behaviours? Might our behavior be purposive, yet unintended?


Efficiency
Efficiency:

  • the efficiency component of automaticity refers to the extent to which a mental process demands attentional resources for its execution. To the extent that it does, it may not occur when the attentional demands of a situation are high (e.g., dual tasking)

    So is everyday behaviour efficient or can it be disrupted by concurrent tasks?


Controllability
Controllability:

  • controllability generally refers to the extent to which one is aware of the impact of a stimulus and whether one is able to counteract (i.e., control) the effect of the stimulus on one’s behaviour.

    So is everyday action controllable?


The lights are on but is there anybody home
The Lights Are On:But is There Anybody Home?

“much of everyday life - thinking, feeling, and doing - is automatic in that it is driven by current features of the environment (i.e., people, objects, behaviors of others, settings, roles, norms, etc.) as mediated by automatic cognitive processing of those features, without any mediation by conscious choice or reflection.”

Bargh (1997, p. 2)


If then conditionals
If-Then Conditionals

  • the power of if-then conditionals (Anderson, 1992; Bargh, 1989)

  • if X (i.e., environmental feature), then Y (i.e., action)

    red light - then - brake

    elderly person - then - ?


The perception behaviour link
The Perception-Behaviour Link

  • principle of ideomotor action (James, 1890)

    thinking (consciously) about an action activates the tendency to engage in the behaviour (e.g., getting out of bed).


Common coding hypothesis
Common Coding Hypothesis

  • representing action tendencies in the mind

  • common coding hypothesis (Prinz, 1990)

    one’s mental representations (e.g., vanilla ice cream) contain not only related semantic information (e.g., cold, tasty), but also applicable behavioral information (e.g., eat with fudge sauce). Thus, when the representation is activated, accessible action tendencies guide one’s behaviour in particular directions.

    So can behavior be elicited automatically?


Automatic action some early evidence
Automatic Action:Some Early Evidence

Do aggressive cues make people aggressive?


Carver et al 1983
Carver et al. (1983)

  • ‘shocking’ the confederate

    in a first study, allegedly unrelated to the critical experiment, the concept of hostility was primed for some participants. Then, in what was purportedly an unrelated experiment, participants were told to give shocks to another person (confederate) when he or she gave an incorrect answer to a question. Those primed with hostility-related words gave longer shocks to the confederate than did non-

    primed participants

  • ouch! but do these effects emerge in other domains?


Automatic action bargh et al 1996
Automatic Action:(Bargh et al., 1996)

  • Expt 1 - Priming Trait Constructs

    Phase 1: scrambled sentence task - prime ‘rudeness’ or ‘politeness’ or neither construct.

    assertive patient

    rude polite

    disturb respectful


Phase 2: walk down the hall to take part in an

unrelated experiment, but the experimenter is

talking to someone (for a maximum of 10 mins)

How many participants interrupt the conversation?

Rude prime = 67%

Polite prime = 16%




  • Phase 2 - walking down the hall (40 feet)

    time taken to make the journey

    elderly condition = 8.26s

    control condition = 7.30s

    Thus, elicitation of action associated with the elderly. But there’s more!!!



  • Expt 3 - Priming Affective Responses

    color-counting task (pre-tested as boring)

    subliminal priming - black or white faces

    masking stimulus (odd/even number of circles)

    130th trial - error message appears on the screen

    the task must be repeated

    participants are videotaped


How did participants respond to being told that the task must be repeated?

rated hostility (5-point scale)

white faces = 2.13

black faces = 2.79


Who wants to be a millionaire dijksterhuis van knippenberg 1998
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? must be repeated?Dijksterhuis & Van Knippenberg (1998)



  • Priming Stereotypes (Expt 1) must be repeated?

    Phase 1: thought listing (5 mins)

    professor

    secretary

    control

    Phase 2: 42 Trivial Pursuit Questions

    Who painted La Guernica?

    (A) Dali, (B) Miro, (C) Picasso, or (D) Velasquez


Task Performance must be repeated?

professor = 59.5%

secretary = 46.4%

control = 49.9%


How stupid can you be
How Stupid Can You Be? must be repeated?


  • Strength of Priming must be repeated?

    Phase 1 - Thought Listing

    soccer hooligan (2 or 9 mins)

    control (no prime)

    Which country hosted the 1990 World Cup?

    (A) USA, (B) Mexico, (C) Spain, or (D) Italy


Task Performance must be repeated?

soccer hooligan (2 mins) = 48.6%

soccer hooligan (9 mins) = 43.1%

control (no prime) = 49.9%

Thus, strength of the effect is moderated by the nature of the priming experience.


Silence in the library aarts dijksterhuis 2003
Silence in the Library: must be repeated?Aarts & Dijksterhuis (2003)


  • Priming Silence (Expt 1) must be repeated?

    Phase 1: picture description task

    library (you will visit) – ‘library goal’ prime

    railway platform (you will visit) – ‘control goal’ prime

    library (you will not visit) – ‘no-goal library’ prime

    Phase 2: Lexical Decision Task (accessibility of words related to silence)

    library-goal prime = 524 ms

    control-goal prime = 578 ms

    no-goal library prime = 568 ms


  • Producing Silence (Expt 2) must be repeated?

    Phase 1: picture description task

    library (you will visit) – ‘library goal’ prime

    railway platform (you will visit) – ‘control goal’ prime

    library (you will not visit) – ‘no-goal library’ prime

    Phase 2: Pronounce 10 words (record voice intensity dB(A))

    library-goal prime = 83.16 dB

    control-goal prime = 84.48 dB

    no-goal library prime = 84.62 dB


Automatic action some boundary conditions
Automatic Action: must be repeated?Some Boundary Conditions


Automatic action and inaction
Automatic Action and Inaction must be repeated?

  • lets ‘prime’ kissing (who do you kiss?)

  • architecture of cognition

    resolving conflict (Norman & Shallice, 1986)

    regulating automatic action

    leaving the movies

    kissing the boss

    inhibition


A few words from william james
A Few Words From William James must be repeated?

“we have so many ideas that do not result in action. But it will be seen that in every such case, without exception, that is because other ideas present simultaneously rob them of their impulsive power.”

James (1890, p. 525)


Help i need somebody macrae and johnston 1998
Help, I Need Somebody: must be repeated?Macrae and Johnston (1998)


  • Phase 1 must be repeated? - Scrambled Sentence Task

    helpfulness

    no-prime

  • Phase 2 - The Clumsy Experimenter

    regular pens

    leaking pens

  • did participants offer assistance?


Prime must be repeated?

Helping Control

regular pens 93.7% 68.7%

leaking pens 6.2% 12.5%


Expt 2 on resisting assisting
Expt 2: must be repeated?On Resisting Assisting

  • Phase 1 - Scrambled Sentence Task

    helpfulness

    no-prime

  • Phase 2 - Moving To The Next Experiment

    running on schedule

    5 mins behind schedule

  • did participants offer assistance (regular pens)?


Prime must be repeated?

Helping Control

on time 100% 75%

running late 12.5% 12.5%


Summary

Summary must be repeated?

Things Worth Knowing

What is automaticity?

Process and consequences of behavioral priming.

Next Week

1. Interpersonal Mimicry


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