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Chapter 20 Section 4. Napoleon’s Fall and Europe’s Reactions. Key Terms. Czar Alexander I Hundred Days Duke of Wellington Prince Klemens von Metternich Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Indemnity Reactionary. The Russian Campaign. Czar Alexander I- Russian leader

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Chapter 20 section 4

Chapter 20

Section 4

Napoleon’s Fall and Europe’s Reactions

Key terms
Key Terms

  • Czar Alexander I

  • Hundred Days

  • Duke of Wellington

  • Prince Klemens von Metternich

  • Charles Maurice de Talleyrand

  • Indemnity

  • Reactionary

The russian campaign
The Russian Campaign

  • Czar Alexander I- Russian leader

  • Concerned that Napoleon stationed troops at his border

  • Worried about imports for his country

  • Napoleon moved his troops into Russia

The russian campaign1
The Russian Campaign

  • 600,000 soldiers invade

  • Most soldiers were new recruits

  • Supplies were lost or spoiled

  • July heat tough on men and horses

  • Disease, desertion, hunger thinned the ranks

The russian campaign2
The Russian Campaign

  • Napoleon wanted a quick victory

  • Russian troops withdrew

  • Peasants moved and set their fields on fire

  • August French troops moving to Moscow

  • French won a battle

The russian campaign3
The Russian Campaign

  • Russian army 90000 strong retreated

  • French army in Moscow in September

  • City deserted and in flames

  • Napoleon could not support his troops

  • Left Moscow in October

The russian campaign4
The Russian Campaign

  • Russians forced the French to retreat as they entered

  • Russian peasants attacked isolated French soldiers

  • Harsh Russian winter kills thousands

  • 94,000 out 600,000 return to France

Defeat and exile to elba
Defeat and Exile to Elba

  • Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain become allies

  • October 1813 met with Napoleon

  • Napoleon defeated

  • Allies enter Paris in triumph

Defeat and exile to elba1
Defeat and Exile to Elba

  • Napoleon has to give up the throne

  • Keeps title of emperor

  • Sent to island of Elba

  • Off the coast of Italy with 400 guards

The last campaigns
The Last Campaigns

  • Allies restore French monarchy

  • Louis XVII takes the throne

  • Return France to 1792 borders

  • King became unpopular

  • French feared a return to the old ways

The hundred days
The Hundred Days

  • After a year in exile Napoleon escapes

  • Louis XVII flees to Belgium

  • French had despised Napoleon

  • Thousands of citizens were excited

  • Troops sent to arrest Napoleon pledged their loyalty

The hundred days1
The Hundred Days

  • March 20 Napoleon arrives in Paris

  • People cheered

  • Hundred days begins

  • Hundred days- brief period of renewed glory for Napoleon

Battle of waterloo
Battle of Waterloo

  • Napoleon’s enemies gathered for another battle

  • Duke of Wellington –British commander

  • June 18, 1815 armies met at Waterloo

  • Prussia and Britain combine forces

  • Push the French off the battlefield

Battle of waterloo1
Battle of Waterloo

  • French and British suffer huge loses

  • Casualties total 50,000 men

  • Waterloo crushing defeat for Napoleon

  • End of the Napoleonic Wars

Napoleon s final days
Napoleon’s Final Days

  • Tried to escape to America

  • Exiled to Saint Helena, 1200 miles from mainland

  • Napoleon did not escape

  • Died 6 years later at 51

The congress of vienna
The Congress of Vienna

  • Purpose was to create a stable Europe

  • Diplomats redrew map-of-Europe

  • 700 diplomats attend

  • Only a few were crucial to negotiations

The congress of vienna1
The Congress of Vienna

  • Lord Castlereagh, Czar Alexander I, King Frederick William III, Prince Klemens von Metternich, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand

  • Meeternich had a strong distaste for democracy

Redrawing the map
Redrawing the Map

  • Congress of Vienna changed many borders

  • Strengthened nations around France

  • 38 German states for the German Coalition

  • Britain gains oversea territories

  • France lost all its conquered territory

  • Indemnity- France had to pay back damages to other countries

Restoring monarchies
Restoring Monarchies

  • Restored some monarchies Napoleon had eliminated

  • Old Bourbon family returned to Spain and Sicily

  • Monarchies restored in Portugal and Sardinia

Metternich s influence
Metternich’s Influence

  • Reactionary-ideals not only oppose progress but want things to return to the old ways

  • Metternich was a reactionary

  • Believed in absolute monarchy

  • Despised constitutions, voting rights, freedom of religion

Metternich s influence1
Metternich’s Influence

  • Austria, Germany, Italy, suppressed liberal ideas with secret police

  • Newspapers were not allowed to publish opposing views

Revolution s legacy
Revolution’s Legacy

  • After Congress of Vienna monarchs ruled much of Europe

  • Citizens rights were again restricted

  • French Revolution changed many things

  • Nobles and monarchs were not secure in their positions

Revolution s legacy1
Revolution’s Legacy

  • Enlightenment ideas would not go away

  • Common people knew they could make changes

  • People no longer assumed nothing can change

  • Revolution lasted 10 years

Revolutions legacy
Revolutions Legacy

  • Inspired people for 200 years

  • Survived worst horrors of French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars

  • Massive revolutions occurred in France and Rumania

  • Inspired Latin America to overthrow colonial rule