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Chapter 8 Greece, Turkey and Cyprus. Nathalie Tocci. Greece, Turkey and Cyprus. From Ottoman Empire to Independence and Conflict Turkey’s Rocky Road to Democracy Domestic Politics and Institutions Foreign Policy in the Eastern Mediterranean. Introduction.

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greece turkey and cyprus
Greece, Turkey and Cyprus
  • From Ottoman Empire to Independence and Conflict
  • Turkey’s Rocky Road to Democracy
  • Domestic Politics and Institutions
  • Foreign Policy in the Eastern Mediterranean
introduction
Introduction
  • Greece, Turkey and Cyprus born out of the Ottoman Empire
  • Rough paths to democracy
  • Relations between the three, and with EU, are crucial to their external affairs
from ottoman empire to independence and conflict
From Ottoman Empire to Independence and Conflict
  • Greece establishes independence 1829
  • Greek military campaign 1920-2
  • Turkey emerged in 1923 out of the Greek-Turkish War
  • Cyprus divides between Greece and Turkey
  • 1944-9 – Greek Civil War
  • 1960 – Cyprus becomes independent bi-communal Republic (collapses 1963)
  • 1967-74 – Greek dictatorship
  • 1974 – Greek junta targets Cyprus, prompting own downfall
  • 1975 – Hellenic Republic created
turkey s rocky road to democracy
Turkey’s Rocky Road to Democracy
  • Turkey created 1923 by Atatürk
  • Kemalist vision:
    • western, stable, homogenous nation-state
    • Blend of westernization, secularism, nationalism, statism, populism
  • Challenges to Turkish state:
    • Kurdish separatism
    • Political Islam
domestic politics and institutions post 1974 greece
Domestic Politics and Institutions: post-1974 Greece
  • Parliamentary democracy
  • Party system centred around New Democracy and PASOK
  • Tradition of strong state, clientelism and weak civil society
  • Reforms since late 1980s have created stable 2-party system, civil society and sub-state level government
domestic politics and institutions republic of turkey
Domestic Politics and Institutions: Republic of Turkey
  • One-party system (Republican People’s Party (CHP)) until 1946
  • Democrat Party (DP) legalised in 1946
  • Both Kemalist moderate parties
  • Turbulent development of party system, due to periodic military rule and outlawing of parties
  • Post-1961: Justice Party (ex-DP) vs. CHP
  • Post-1983: dominance of Motherland Party (neo-liberal) emerges
  • 2002: AKP (Justice and Development Party) (moderate Islam) vs. CHP
domestic politics and institutions greek cyprus
Domestic Politics and Institutions: Greek Cyprus
  • Presidential executive
  • All parties committed to reunification, repatriation and Turkish withdrawal
  • Divide between Greek Cypriot nationalists and Cypriot nationalists
domestic politics and institutions turkish cyprus
Domestic Politics and Institutions: Turkish Cyprus
  • Semi-presidential executive
  • Political unity around call for political equality with Greek Cypriots, autonomy for Turkish Cypriots, continued role for Turkey
  • Divide between nationalists and centre-left/liberals
foreign policy in the eastern mediterranean
Foreign Policy in the Eastern Mediterranean
  • Since 1975 Greek foreign policy has changed dramatically
  • Turkey has close, but problematic, ties with West and Europe
  • North-South conflict is key factor in Cypriot foreign policy in both communities
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