Overpopulation. Issues to Be Considered. Population Growth – fertility rates, social and cultural roles, government roles Economic problems – debt, hunger and starvation Available resources – renewable (time frames), non-renewable Consumption – expectations, reality
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Population Growth – fertility rates, social and cultural roles, government roles
Economic problems – debt, hunger and starvation
Available resources – renewable (time frames), non-renewable
Consumption – expectations, reality
Urbanization – trends, benefits, problems
How does an expanding population become a stable population (i.e., change from an r-strategy to a K-strategy)?
In an r-strategy stable population both the birth rates and the death rates are high.
If the death rate decreases because of better food/medical/sanitation procedures, the population grows.
With technological development the birth rate drops (female education? investment in offspring?)
In mature high technology society the birth rates and death rates are low, producing a K-strategy stable population.
Ratio* = 2025:1950
Top 10 Cities of the Year 1000
NamePopulation1. Cordova, Spain450,0002. Kaifeng, China400,0003. Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey300,0004. Angkor, Cambodia200,0005. Kyoto, Japan175,0006. Cairo, Egypt135,0007. Baghdad, Iraq125,0008. Nishapur (Neyshabur), Iran125,0009. Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia110,00010. Patan (Anhilwara), India100,000
Ratio* = 2025:1950
Top 10 Cities of the Year 1950
NamePopulation1. New York, United States12,463,0002. London, United Kingdom 8,860,0003. Tokyo, Japan 7,000,0004. Paris, France 5,900,0005. Shanghai, China 5,406,0006. Moscow, Russia 5,100,0007. Buenos Aires, Argentina 5,000,0008. Chicago, United States 4,906,0009. Essen, Germany 4,900,00010. Calcutta, India 4,800,000
Top 10 Cities of the Year 2000
NamePopulation1. Tokyo, Japan 28,000,0002. Mexico City, Mexico18,100,0003. Bombay, India18,000,0004. Sao Paulo, Brazil17,700,0005. New York, United States 16, 600,0006. Shanghai, China 14,200,0007. Lagos, Nigeria 13,500,0008. Los Angeles, United State 13,100,0009. Calcutta, India12,900,00010. Buenos Aires, Argentina 12,400,000
Family planning in Thailand - example of success
Annual population growth dropped from 3.3% in 1972 to 1.2% in 1995. Mechai Viravaidya, founder of Community-Based Family Planning Service (CBFPS). Focused on wants and needs of poor.
In China, population control is a political outcome
Women must receive “birth coupons” prior to conception
Mass murders of girl babies
Abortions (even at 9 months gestation)
Women of reproductive age examined and monitored
While demographic transition is occurring in many places, the world population keeps increasing at a rate of about 1.5% to 2% per year.
So the doubling rate is between 35 and 46 years!
What will this mean for the planet?
Will we alter the human carrying capacity by our impact?
What can we do to help stabilize the world’s population?
What should we do?
To put these two in context, consider the following equation:
I = P x A x T
I = environmental impact
P = the population size
A = affluence (or consumption)
T = effects of the technology used
People overpopulation relates the first term - P
Consumption overpopulation relates to the last two terms - A and T.
Increasing the fuel mileage of cars by just 3 mpg would save the same amount of oil that could be tapped from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge over 10 years.
Every 20 minutes, the world adds another 3,500 human lives but loses one or more entire species of animal or plant life - at least 27,000 species per year.
Population is growing faster than food supplies in 64 of 105 developing countries. Overcultivation, primarily due to population pressures, has degraded some 2 billion hectares of arable land - an area the size of Canada and the United States combined
Globally, the demand for fresh water exceeds the supply by 17 percent already. Two-thirds of the world's population will experience some form of a severe water shortage in the next 25 years.By 2025, when world population is projected to reach 8 billion, 48 countries with a total population of 3 billion will face chronic water shortages. In 25 years, humankind could be using over 90 percent of all available freshwater, leaving just 10 percent for the rest of the world's plants and animals.
Paul Erlich – Population Bomb, 1968 – predicted 2 billion. Now at 6 billion.
Julian Simon – there is no problem, more people means more potential technology solutions.
Some estimate 20 billion will be maximum (at this rate, in your lifetime!!!)
Solution = balance of population controls and consumption controls.