Business writing workshop
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 31

Writing error-free PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 105 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Business Writing Workshop. Writing error-free. Frank Hurley and Donna Kain. Writing with Style. Strategies and Tips. Writing free of errors that interfere with reader comprehension: Use punctuation correctly to avoid confusion. Use structures correctly to avoid confusion.

Download Presentation

Writing error-free

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Business writing workshop

Business Writing Workshop

Writing error-free

Frank Hurley and Donna Kain


Writing with style

Writing with Style

Strategies and Tips

  • Writing free of errors that interfere with reader comprehension:

    • Use punctuation correctly to avoid confusion.

    • Use structures correctly to avoid confusion.

    • Choose the right word from confusing pairs such as discretely/discreetly and affect/effect.


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Reasons we confuse some words

  • They sound the same (“homonyms”)

  • They’re spelled similarly

  • The definitions are similar or related (e.g., “advice” and “advise”)


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing1

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Something to keep in mind:


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing2

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Something to keep in mind:

  • Spell check will not save you.

  • (But use it anyway. Grammar check may help)


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing3

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Common Homonym Problems

  • There, their, they’re; your, you’re

  • Its, it’s

  • To, too, two


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing4

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Affect or effect

    • Affect is usually a verb meaning "to influence." Effect is usually a noun meaning "result." When used as a verb, effect means "to cause."


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing5

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Among or Between

  • Use “among” for arrangements involving more than 2 people or things. Use “between” for arrangements involving only 2 people or things.

  • Example

    • The consensus among pollsters is that the Democrats are set to pick up between 25 and 35 seats this fall.


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing6

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Amount or number

  • Use amount to refer to a quantity. Use number to refer to people or things that can be counted.

  • Examples

    • The amount of gizmos is more than we can ship in on box. (incorrect)

    • The number of gizmos is more than we can ship in on box. (incorrect)


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing7

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Complement and Compliment

  • Complement is something that completes something else. A compliment is an expression of praise.

  • Examples

    • That picture complements the text.

    • She complimented his work.


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing8

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • “e.g.,” or “i.e.,”

  • The abbreviation e.g. means "for example." The abbreviation i.e. means "that is.“

  • Examples

    • Some parts are difficult to pack (e.g., the gizmo’s and the widgets).

    • Some parts are difficult to pack (i.e., the shapes do not fit the packing well).


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing9

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Finally and Finely

  • This confusion is usually a spelling error.

    • The adverb finally means at last, coming at the end.

    • The adverb finely (from fine) means precisely, minutely, or extremely well done.


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing10

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Good or well

  • Good is usually an adjective (a good book, a good job). Well is usually an adverb (runs well, a well-written essay).

  • Examples

    • She did a good job.

    • She did the job well.

  • (Remember “bad” and “badly” too).


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing11

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Imply and Infer

  • A speaker implies (or "suggests") something; a listener infers (or "deduces").

  • Examples

    • The manager implied that I was a bad risk. I inferred from her remarks that she thought I was lazy.


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing12

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Lay and Lie

  • Lay means to put or place; it takes a direct object. Lie means to rest or recline; it does not take a direct object.

  • Examples

    • Remember: chickens lay eggs; people lie down.


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing13

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Perquisite and Prerequisite

  • A perquisite is a benefit (beyond pay) that is associated with a particular job. A prerequisite is something required as a prior condition of something else.

  • Examples

    • Proper insulation is the first prerequisite for the effective use of any energy-saving device.


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing14

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Than and Then

  • Use than to make a comparison. Use then when referring to time. (Mistakes here are usually typos.)

  • Examples

    • The job was harder than I had expected.

    • I sent two e-mails and then I called.


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing15

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Which and Who

  • Who refers to people; which refers to things.

  • Examples

    • The man who just left drives a Mercedes, which is a very expensive car.


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing16

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Who and Whom

  • Use who when a sentence requires a subject pronoun (equivalent to he or she).

  • Use whom when a sentence requires an object pronoun (equivalent to him or her).

    • In contemporary usage, who is often used in either case.


Commonly confused words strategies for c lear c orrect writing17

Commonly confused wordsStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Who and Whom

  • Examples

    • We need people who can lift 70 lbs. for this job.

    • To whom will you give the job?

    • TIP: see if you can substitute “him” or “her” in a related sentence. “We will give the job to him” (use whom). “She can lisft 70 lbs” (use who).


Common comma usage strategies for c lear c orrect writing

Common Comma UsageStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Use a comma before a coordinator (and, but, yet, or, nor, for, so) that links two independent clauses:

    • The optimist thinks that this is the best of all possible worlds, andthe pessimist knows it. (Robert Oppenheimer)

  • Independent clauses are parts of sentences that would make sense as sentences all by themselves. Dependent clauses are parts of sentences that could not be sentences by themselves.)


Common comma usage strategies for c lear c orrect writing1

Common Comma UsageStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • However, do not use a comma before a coordinator that links two words or phrases:

    • Jack and Diane sang and danced all night.


Common comma usage strategies for c lear c orrect writing2

Common Comma UsageStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Use a comma between words, phrases, or clauses that appear in a series includingbefore the last item in the series:

    • The widgets get injected, inspected, detected, infected, neglected, and selected.


Common comma usage strategies for c lear c orrect writing3

Common Comma UsageStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • The example also demonstrates parallel construction:

    • The widgets get injected, inspected, detected, infected, neglected, and selected.

  • Use parallel constructions in lists and bullet points.


Common comma usage strategies for c lear c orrect writing4

Common Comma UsageStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Use commas and semi-colons between words, phrases, or clauses that appear in a series when parts of a series include multiple items:

    • We need to pack the gizmos, widgets, and tools; store the boxes, pallets, and tarps; and throw away the trash.


Common comma usage strategies for c lear c orrect writing5

Common Comma UsageStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Use a comma after a phrase or clause that precedes the subject of a sentence (or the verbin a command):

    • If at first you don't succeed,failuremay be your style. (Quentin Crisp)

    • To meet the deadline, ship the package by 2:00 pm today.


Common comma usage strategies for c lear c orrect writing6

Common Comma UsageStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Use a pair of commas to set off words, phrases, or clauses that interrupt a sentence to provide extra information:

    • We need the gizmos,which are stored in the trailer, for the order tomorrow.

    • (In other words, we need gizmos and I’m just letting you know they’re out back in the trailer in case you didn’t know where you can find some. )


Common comma usage strategies for c lear c orrect writing7

Common Comma UsageStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • But don't use commas to set off information that directly affects the essential meaning of the sentence:

    • We need the gizmos that are stored in the trailer for the order tomorrow.

    • (In other words, we need those gizmos in the trailer specifically and not anyother gizmos stored anywhere else. Gizmos may be everywhere. We only want the ones from the trailer.)


Common comma usage strategies for c lear c orrect writing8

Common Comma UsageStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • The previous examples also demonstrate restrictiveand non-restrictive clauses

    • Restrictive: We need the gizmos that are stored in the trailer for the order tomorrow.

    • Non-restrictive: We need the gizmos,whichare stored in the trailer, for the order tomorrow.


Common semi colon usage strategies for c lear c orrect writing

Common semi-colon usageStrategies for Clear , Correct Writing

  • Use semi-colons to separate two complete (independent) clauses:

    • We need the gizmos today; we need the widgets by Friday.


Wrap up

Wrap Up

Make sure to check your writing for errors and don’t rely completely on spell check or grammar check.


  • Login