Paradigms of Educational Research: Multiple Ways of Knowing. What is Paradigm? hat is Paradigm? Webster’s Par-a- digm [< Gr. Para- beside = deigma , example] example or model; an example of a declension or conjugation Roget’s Example
hat is Paradigm?
Par-a-digm [< Gr. Para- beside = deigma, example]
example or model; an example of a declension or conjugation
archetype, beau ideal, chart, criterion, ensample, exemplar, ideal, mirror,
model, original, pattern, prototype, sample, standard
Any example or representative instance of a coherent or theoretical approach,
for example, Merton’s (1949) summary exemplifying discussion of the strengths
and pitfalls of functional analysis in sociology. In some branches of philosophy
a “paradigm case” is seen as providing an “ostensive definition” of a concept.
Term most often associated with its usage in T.S. Kuhn’s The Structure of
Scientific Revolutions (1962) to refer to constellations of “law, theory,
application and instrumentation” which, taken together, “provide models from
which spring particular coherent traditions of scientific research,” e.g., Ptolemaic
astronomy, Newtonian mechanics.
way of viewing reality
way of seeing the world
way of looking at the world
archetype * beau ideal * chart
criterion * ensample * ideal * mirror
original * pattern * prototype * sample
standard * change * worldview * mind set
philosophy * foundation * idea * method * concept *
assumption * conceptual change* exemplary framework *
set of values * growth of knowledge * representative instance metaphorical spectacles * shift in one’s thinking * constellations of law, theory, application & instrumentation * entire system of education
Key Vocabulary and Definitions
Philosophy <Gr.: phileo (love) + sophia (wisdom)>
Like philosophy, research begins in wonder...
Branches of Philosophy
Logic is a subfield of epistemology; it studies rules and principles of reasoning
Forms of logic: Inductive reasoning: making generalizations on the basis of specific propositions. Deductive reasoning: concluding something specific from something general (e.g. Syllogism)
Value conflict: “objective values” (universally valid) vs. “subjective values” (relative, depend on particular situation)
Philosophy of science examines the methods used by science, the ways in
which hypotheses and laws are formulated from evidence, and the grounds
on which scientific claims about the world may be justified. Both philosophy
and science seek to understand the nature of the world and its structures.
Three general periods in Western philosophy of science:
Nature of Knowledge
Sources of Knowledge
Origins of positivism
Major assumptions of positivism
Pragmatism: A middle-ground paradigm?
Existential Phenomenology and Hermeneutics
Existential paradox—the human being’s experience of nothingness
before God, which is at the same moment the complete fulfillment of human
Anxiety (anguish) arises when our everyday life seems pointless. Existential
anxiety reveals who I am—solitary, finite, free. It is a powerful experience and a source
of creativity and growth. Neurotic anxiety may arise from suppressing existential anxiety
It is pain and dissatisfaction that I feel when I limit myself and deny my real possibilities.
Authentic existence encourages self-exploration.
The essence of Dasein is Care (Sorge). When we live authentically we care for
ourselves, others, and everything that we encounter in the world.
Existentialism criticizes mass society and mass culture as depersonalizationof the
individual that aggravates the feeling of alienation. At the root of the mass society is
mass production, which creates mass housing, communications, media, and
entertainment. Existentialism influenced experimental, informal, non-traditional
schooling; humanistic psychology (Maslow, Allport, Rogers, May)