Cs 540 database management systems
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CS 540 Database Management Systems. Logging and Recovery: ARIES. The ACID Properties of Transactions. Atomicity: Either all actions are done, or none Consistency: DB satisfies all the consistency constraints Transactions are expected to preserve consistency Is olation :

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CS 540 Database Management Systems

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Cs 540 database management systems

CS 540 Database Management Systems

Logging and Recovery: ARIES


The acid properties of transactions

The ACID Properties of Transactions

  • Atomicity:

    • Either all actions are done, or none

  • Consistency:

    • DB satisfies all the consistency constraints

    • Transactions are expected to preserve consistency

  • Isolation:

    • As if each transaction were executed alone

  • Durability:

    • Once a transaction is completed, its effect must persist

Concurrency/Lock Manager: consistency & isolation

Recovery/Log Manager: atomicity & durability


Motivation

Motivation

  • How to ensure atomicity and durability?

    • transactions may abort (need to “rollback”)

    • what if DBMS stops running?

  • Desired status after system restarts:

    • T1, T2 & T3 should be durable.

    • T4 & T5 should be aborted (effects not seen).

crash!

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5


Assumptions

Assumptions

  • Concurrency control is in effect

    • strict 2PL, in particular.

      • request s/x locks before read/write

      • all the locks held until EOT (strict locking)

  • Updates are happening “in place” (no shadow pages)

    • Data is overwritten on (or deleted from) the disk

  • A simple scheme to guarantee atomicity & durability?


Handling the buffer pool

Handling the Buffer Pool

No Steal

Steal

  • Force writing to disk at commit?

    • poor response time

    • but provides durability

  • Steal buffer-pool frames from uncommitted transactions?

    • if not, inefficient use of the buffer

    • if so, how can we ensure atomicity?

  • Recovery scheme vs. B.M.:

    • undo-only: can steal? must force?

    • redo-only: no steal? no force?

Force

Trivial

Desired

No Force


Basic idea logging

Basic Idea: Logging

  • Record redo and undo information in log

    • sequential writes to log (put it on a separate disk).

    • minimal info (diff) written to log, so multiple updates fit in a single log page

  • log: ordered list of redo/undo actions

    • log record contains:

      <XID, pageID, offset, length, old data, new data>

    • and additional control info (which we’ll see soon)


Write ahead logging wal

Write-Ahead Logging (WAL)

  • Write-Ahead Logging Protocol:

    • must force the log record for an update before the corresponding data page gets to disk.

    • must force all log records for a xactbeforecommit.

  • #1 guarantees atomicity (undo)

  • #2 guarantees durability (redo)

  • Exactly how is logging (and recovery!) done?

    • we’ll study the ARIES algorithms


Aries main principles

ARIES Main Principles

  • WAL

  • Repeating history during REDO

  • Logging changes during UNDO

  • Enables:

    • simplicity and flexibility

    • finer granularity locking (than a page)

      • updates to (different parts of) same page are streamed in redo/undo

    • redoing and undoing not necessarily exact physical inverse


Wal the log

pageLSN

WAL & the Log

  • Each log record has unique Log Sequence Number

    • LSNs always increasing

  • Each data pagecontains a pageLSN

    • LSN of the most recent log recordof latest update

  • System keeps track of flushedLSN

    • the max LSN flushed so far

  • WAL: before writing a page,

    • pageLSN<= flushedLSN

      • pageLSN in flushed already

Log records

flushed to disk

“Log tail”

in RAM


Log records

prevLSN

XID

type

pageID

length

offset

before-image

after-image

Log Records

Possible log record types:

  • Update

  • Commit

  • Abort

  • End

    • end of commit or abort

  • Compensation Log Records (CLRs)

    • for UNDO actions

LogRecord fields:

update

records

only


Other log related state

Other Log-Related State

  • Transaction table:

    • one entry per active Xact

    • contains XID, status (running/committed/aborted), and lastLSN

  • Dirty page table:

    • one entry per dirty page in buffer pool

    • contains recLSN -- the LSN of the log record which first caused the page to be dirty


Normal execution of an xact

Normal Execution of an Xact

  • Series of reads & writes, followed by commit or abort

  • Strict 2PL

  • STEAL, NO-FORCE buffer management, with write-ahead logging


Checkpointing

Checkpointing

  • Periodical checkpoint:

    • minimize the (analysis) time to recover from system crash

  • Write to log:

    • begin_checkpointrecord: indicates when chkpt began

    • end_checkpointrecord: contains current xact table and dirty page table. `Fuzzy checkpoint’:

      • other xacts continue to run; these tables accurate only as of the time of the begin_checkpointrecord

      • no attempt to force dirty pages to disk

    • effectiveness limited by earliest recLSN in dirty page table

      • oldest unwritten change to a dirty page

      • so a good idea to periodically flush dirty pages to disk!

  • Store LSN of chkpt record in master record


Big picture what s stored where

prevLSN

XID

type

pageID

length

offset

before-image

after-image

Big Picture: What’s Stored Where

LOG

RAM

DB

LogRecords

Xact Table

lastLSN (last log)

status

Dirty Page Table

recLSN (first log)

flushedLSN

Data pages

each

with a

pageLSN

master record


Simple transaction abort

Simple Transaction Abort

  • For now, consider an explicit abort of a xact

    • e.g., validation error, deadlock; no crash involved

  • Play back the log in reverse order,

    UNDOing updates:

    • get lastLSN of xact from xact table

    • can follow chain of log records backward via the prevLSN field

    • before starting undo, write an abort log record.

      • for recovering from crash during undo


Abort cont

Abort, cont.

  • To perform UNDO, must have a lock on data

    • no problem (strict locking)

  • Before restoring old value of a page, write a CLR:

    • you continue logging while you undo

    • CLR has one extra field: undoNextLSN

      • points to the next LSN to undo (i.e. the prevLSN of the record we’re currently undoing)

    • CLRs never undone (but might be redone when repeating history after another crash)

  • At end of UNDO, write an “End” log record.

  • 120 CLR

  • undo 101

  • undonextLSN=98

  • (T1: lastLSN=120)

T1 abort

T1: lastLSN=101

101

98


Transaction commit

Transaction Commit

  • Write commit record to log

  • All log records up to xact’s lastLSN are flushed.

    • guarantees thatflushedLSN>=lastLSN

  • Commit() returns (after synchronous IO)

  • Write End record to log


Crash recovery big picture

Crash Recovery: Big Picture

Oldest log rec. of Xact active at crash

  • Start from a checkpoint (found via master record)

  • Three phases. Need to:

    • figure out which xacts committed since checkpoint, which failed (Analysis).

    • REDOall actions.

      • repeat history

    • UNDO effects of failed xacts.

Smallest recLSN in dirty page table after Analysis

Last chkpt

CRASH

A

R

U


Crash recovery vs transaction abort

Crash Recovery vs. Transaction Abort?

  • What are the differences?


Crash recovery vs transaction abort1

Crash Recovery vs. Transaction Abort?

  • Abort:

    • (state in memory, then) undo one xact

  • Recovery

    • reconstruct state, then undo all uncommitted xact

    • reconstruction: analysis + redo

    • undo: must consider global ordering of undos


Recovery analysis phase

Recovery: Analysis Phase

Goal: reconstruct two state tables:

  • xact-table: what xacts to abort (undo)?

  • dirty-page table: where to start redo?

  • (init) Restore state at checkpoint

    • via end_checkpointrecord

  • (delta after ckpt) Scan log forward from ckpt

    • End record: remove xact from xact table

    • Other records:

      • add Xact to Xact table, set lastLSN=LSN

      • change xact status if commit seen

    • Update record only: If P not in Dirty Page Table,

      • add P to DPT, set its recLSN=LSN


  • Recovery redo phase

    Recovery: REDO Phase

    • Repeat Histosryto reconstruct state at crash:

      • reapply all updates (even of aborted xacts!) and redo CLRs

        (CLRs are now simply dirty-data before last crash)

    • Scan forward from earliest recLSN in DPT

      Redo each CLR or update log rec LSN, unless:

      • affected page is not in the Dirty Page Table, or

      • affected page is in DPT, but has recLSN > LSN

        • why can this happen? page out and in after this LSN

      • pageLSN (in DB) >= LSN

        • why this is done last? (in fact, this also checks the above two)

    • To REDO an action:

      • reapply logged action (not only work for image-based!)

      • set pageLSN to LSN. No additional logging!


    Recovery undo phase

    T1

    Recovery: UNDO Phase

    T3

    T2

    1

    2

    3

    ToUndo={ lastLSN of all “loser”xacts}

    Repeat:

    • choose largest LSN among ToUndo

    • if this LSN is a CLR and undoNextLSN==NULL

      • write an End record for this xact

    • If this LSN is a CLR, and undoNextLSN != NULL

      • add undoNextLSN to ToUndo

      • (what happens to other CLRs of this xact?)

        • only last CLR seen on this chain; others not on chain

    • Else this LSN is an update. Undo the update, write a CLR, add prevLSN to ToUndo.

      Until ToUndo is empty

    4

    5


    Example of recovery

    RAM

    Example of Recovery

    LSN LOG

    00

    05

    10

    20

    30

    40

    45

    50

    60

    begin_checkpoint

    end_checkpoint

    update: T1 writes P5

    update T2 writes P3

    T1 abort

    CLR: Undo T1 LSN 10

    T1 End

    update: T3 writes P1

    update: T2 writes P5

    CRASH, RESTART

    prevLSNs

    Xact Table

    lastLSN

    status

    DPT

    recLSN

    flushedLSN

    ToUndo


    Example crash during restart

    RAM

    Example: Crash During Restart!

    LSN LOG

    begin_checkpoint, end_checkpoint

    update: T1 writes P5

    update T2 writes P3

    T1 abort

    CLR: Undo T1 LSN 10, T1 End

    update: T3 writes P1

    update: T2 writes P5

    CRASH, RESTART

    CLR: Undo T2 LSN 60

    CLR: Undo T3 LSN 50, T3 end

    CRASH, RESTART

    CLR: Undo T2 LSN 20, T2 end

    00,05

    10

    20

    30

    40,45

    50

    60

    70

    80,85

    90

    undoNextLSN

    Xact Table

    lastLSN

    status

    DPT

    recLSN

    flushedLSN

    ToUndo


    Summary of logging recovery

    Summary of Logging/Recovery

    • Recovery Manager guarantees atomicity & durability.

    • Use WAL to allow STEAL/NO-FORCE w/o sacrificing correctness.

    • LSNs identify log records; linked into backwards chains per transaction (via prevLSN).

    • pageLSN allows comparison of data page and log records (so redo becomes simple)


    Summary cont

    Summary, Cont.

    • Checkpointing: A quick way to limit the amount of log to scan on recovery

    • Recovery works in 3 phases:

      • Analysis: Forward from checkpoint.

      • Redo: Forward from oldest recLSN.

      • Undo: Backward from end to first LSN of oldest Xact alive at crash.

    • Upon Undo, write CLRs.

    • Redo “repeats history”: simplifies the logic!


    What you should know

    What You Should Know

    • Basic idea of ARIES

      • What are the three phases of recovery?

      • How does each phase work?

      • How do the data structures support the 3 phases?


    Lessons

    Lessons

    • Opening a problem vs. “closing” a problem

      • Both are milestones

      • Look for long-standing important problems and try to “close” it (aiming at the best solution)

    • Simplicity counts!

      • Simple = uniform processing (no/few special rules)

    • Ensure the considered solution space to be complete

      • Don’t overlook unusual solutions


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