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A Brief Introduction to In-text Citations MLA Style






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A Brief Introduction to In-text Citations MLA Style. Opening Activity . On the left side of yesterday’s ISN entry, create a drawing, illustration, Thinking Map, or any other nonlinguistic representation of what you learned from yesterday’s lesson.
A Brief Introduction to In-text Citations MLA Style

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Slide 1

A Brief Introduction toIn-text Citations MLA Style

Slide 2

Opening Activity

  • On the left side of yesterday’s ISN entry, create a drawing, illustration, Thinking Map, or any other nonlinguistic representation of what you learned from yesterday’s lesson.

  • Also, make sure that you have written 3 questions for a classmate, including one that requires some higher level thinking or analysis.

Slide 3

In-Text Citation

  • also known as parenthetical documentation or citation (pcit).

  • used to cite borrowed words, facts, or ideas at the point they are used in the document.

  • used in conjunction with and not as a replacement for the Works Cited page.

  • In-text citations lead readers to specific works listed on the Works Cited page.

Slide 4

Use an In-Text Citation When

  • You use an idea from a source. The idea is not originally yours. It belongs to the author(s) of the source and must be cited.

  • You paraphrase or summarize a source (even if you change the word order and replace words with synonyms).

  • You directly quote a source.

  • You use information that is not common knowledge.

Slide 5

Some In-Text Citation Guidelines

  • Place the in-text citation where a pause occurs naturally, for example, before the punctuation that concludes the phrase, the clause, the sentence, or the paragraph containing the borrowed information.

Slide 6

Some In-Text Citation Guidelines

  • For a source with one author:

    Helpfulness and listening skills are key components of consulting success (Burkhart 6).

  • There should be an entry on the Works Cited Page that corresponds to this in-text citation:

    Burkhart, Mary. Tips for Writing Consultants. Scranton: Scranton Books, 2008. Print.

Slide 7

Some In-Text Citation Guidelines

  • For a source with no author:

  • Use the title or a shortened version of the title in quotation marks if it is a short work or in italics/underline if it is a long work.

    • (“Working with Student Writers” 6).

Slide 8

Some In-Text Citation Guidelines

  • For a source with two/three authors:

  • Separate last names with any necessary commas and the word “and.”

    • (Burkhart and Smith 6)

  • For a source with four/more authors:

  • Include all last names or include first last name followed by “et al.”

    • (Burkhart et al. 6).

Slide 9

Some In-Text Citation Guidelines

  • For a source with the author named in a signal phrase (tag):

  • Include just the page number.

    • Mary Burkhart reports that effective listening and communication skills are imperative (6).

  • For a source without page numbers:

  • Include just the author’s name.

    • (Burkhart).

Slide 10

Introduce (tag) your Quotations

  • Always introduce quotations before they appear in your paper. No quotation should stand by itself as a separate sentence. Instead, your introductory phrasing should tie the quotation into the flow of your paper, and you should follow each quotation by explaining why it is important or what point it illustrates.

Slide 11

Bad “Examples”

  • Bad Example #1: There are many examples of self-analysis in Plato's philosophy. "The unexamined life is not worth living" (Plato 45).

  • Bad Example #2: Plato thinks people should analyze their own lives. "The unexamined life is not worth living" (Plato 45).

Slide 12

Better Examples

  • Acceptable Example: Plato thinks people should analyze their own lives: "The unexamined life is not worth living" (Plato 45). [In this example, the author uses a colon to show that a quote follows the first sentence]

  • Better Example: Plato believes that people should analyze their own lives. As he writes in one dialogue, "The unexamined life is not worth living" (Plato 45). His attitude is a common one among Greek philosophers.

Slide 13

Does the punctuation mark go before or after the quotation mark?

  • It varies.

  • It goes before the quotation mark when there is no parenthetical citation of a direct quote.

  • When using quotation marks without using parenthetical documentation, the normal rule for MLA guidelines is to place the comma inside the final punctuation mark. So, unless you are quoting material and using a parenthetical citation, commas always go inside the quotation marks, rather than just after them; for instance:

  • Hemingway is an authorial "stud," one who wrote manly books.

Slide 14

Titles of short works

  • Titles of short stories, songs, short poems, and newspaper and magazine articles always go in quotation marks.

  • Put your punctuation mark inside the quotation mark; for example:

  • Ulysses is similar to Hemingway's hero in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro," and the character called Francis Macomber in "The Short, Happy Life of Francis Macomber."

Slide 15

End Punctuation

  • When the sentence ends with a period, place the period outside of the pcit; for example:

  • "The unexamined life is not worth living" (Plato 45).

  • If your quotation is a question or an exclamation, keep the ? or ! and add a period after the pcit; for example:

  • “How should I live? What life or ideal should I live or die for?” (Kierkegaard 12).

Slide 16

New MLA rules for writing numbers

  • If the number can be written in two words or less, for instance, “ten” or “twenty-one,” you spell it out.

  • Any number that cannot, is typed in numeric form, for instance, “731” or “3.14159.”

  • Exceptions: addresses, statistics, percentages or decimals and page numbers.

  • Always spell out a word that begins a sentence. Avoid using one of the above to start a sentence whenever possible.

Slide 17

Works Cited

Hacker, Diana and Nancy Sommers. “MLA Papers.” A Writer’s Reference. 7th ed. Boston: Bedford, 2011. 371-428. Print.

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: MLA, 2009. Print.

MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 3rd ed. New York: MLA, 2008. Print.

Russell, Tony, Allen Brizee, and Elizabeth Angeli. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 16 Nov. 2010. Web. 22 Feb. 2011.

Slide 18

Punctuating In-Text Citations

Slide 19

Instructions

  • Identify the problems with the following examples of formatting and punctuating in-text citations.

  • In-text citations = parenthetical citations = pcit

Slide 20

What’s wrong?

  • Victor Frankenstein, when faced with the decision of whether or not to create a female companion for the monster, states that to do so "would be an act of the basest and most atrocious selfishness." (Shelley 148)

Slide 21

Problem

  • The period inside the quotation mark doesn't belong there. It belongs at the end of the parenthetical citation according MLA practice.

Slide 22

What’s wrong?

  • Victor Frankenstein, when faced with the decision of whether or not to create a female companion for the monster, states that to do so "would be an act of the basest and most atrocious selfishness." (Shelley 148).

Slide 23

Problem

  • Now the writer has a redundant period. Now there are two periods clashing with each other.

Slide 24

What’s wrong?

  • Victor Frankenstein, when faced with the decision of whether or not to create a female companion for the monster, states that to do so "would be an act of the basest and most atrocious selfishness" (Shelley, 148).

Slide 25

Problem

  • The comma doesn't belong inside the pcit. Rarely does a punctuation mark get placed into a pcit for a simple print source. Exceptions do apply, so see your handbook for details.

Slide 26

What’s wrong?

  • Victor Frankenstein, when faced with the decision of whether or not to create a female companion for the monster, states that to do so "would be an act of the basest and most atrocious selfishness" (Shelley pg. 148).

Slide 27

Problem

  • MLA usually does not call for the pg. abbreviation, though some abbreviations may be appropriate at times. See your handbook and follow on a case-by-case basis.

Slide 28

What’s wrong?

  • Victor Frankenstein, when faced with the decision of whether or not to create a female companion for the monster, states that to do so "would be an act of the basest and most atrocious selfishness" (http://www.thisisareallylongurl.com).

Slide 29

Problem

  • Rarely does a web address belong in the body of the essay. Rather, refer to the author of the site, or its title, or its responsible party. Here, the unnecessary URL is distracting. If needed, you can place the URL in the citation on your Works Cited page.

Slide 30

What’s wrong?

  • Victor Frankenstein, when faced with the decision of whether or not to create a female companion for the monster, states that to do so "would be an act of the basest and most atrocious selfishness" (Frankenstein 148).

Slide 31

Problem

  • Unless you are discussing multiple pieces written by the author, and there is a possibility your readers may get confused as to which piece you are quoting, the author's last name gets placed into the pcit and not the title of the novel. Of course, if an author's name is unknown (anonymously written pieces, for instance), then you cannot place the author's name in the pcit. When this arises, you place the title of the piece in the pcit.

Slide 32

What’s wrong?

  • Victor Frankenstein, when faced with the decision of whether or not to create a female companion for the monster, states that to do so "would be an act of the basest and most atrocious selfishness" (Shelley 148).

Slide 33

Solution

  • For a simple print source, end the quote, type a space, begin the parenthetical citation, list the author's name, type a space, list the page number alone without any punctuation or abbreviation, close the parenthetical citation, and then place your end punctuation if needed.

  • For examples of other types of sources, refer to your MLA handout.


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