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www World Wide Web. Created in 1989 European Laboratory for Particle Physics ( Geneva Switzerland ) Purpose Provide an easy way to access cross-referenced documents that exist on the internet. The World Wide Web.

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www World Wide Web

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www

World Wide Web


  • Created in 1989

    • European Laboratory for Particle Physics (Geneva Switzerland)

  • Purpose

    • Provide an easy way to access cross-referenced documents that exist on the internet

The World Wide Web

Tim Berners-Lee followed his dream of a better, easier way to communicate via computers on a global scale, which led him to create the World Wide Web.


  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

    • Language used to design web pages (documents)

  • Web Browser

    • Program that displays HTML documents

The historic NeXT


  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

    • Consists of 4 parts:

      • Protocol  Hyper Text TransferProtocol (HTTP)

      • Domain Name  or Internet Protocol (IP) address

      • Directory

      • Filename

        • Specific document filename

        • index.(s)htm(l) or default.(s)htm(l)

Sample URL: http://www.home.netscape.com/webmail/index.htm


Versions of HTTP

  • Early protocol is HTTP 0.9

    • read only

  • More recent versions:

    • HTTP 1.0

      • read, input, delete, ...

    • HTTP 1.1

      • performance optimizations


  • WWW Ages :

  • Web1.0: static html sites (1990-2003)

  • Web2.0: dynamic web


HTML

Markup language


What is an HTML File?

  • HTML stands for :Hypertext Markup Language

  • An HTML file is a text file containing small markup tags

  • The markup tags tell the Web browser how to display the page

  • An HTML file must have an htm or html file extension

    .html is preferred

    .htm extensions are used by servers on very old operating systems that can only handle “8+3” names (eight characters, dot, three characters)

  • An HTML file can be created using a simple text editor

    Formatted text, such as Microsoft Word’s .doc files, cannot be used in HTML files


HTML Tags

  • HTML tags are used to mark up HTML elements

  • HTML tags are surrounded by angle brackets, < and >

  • Most HTML tags come in pairs, like <b>and </b>

  • The tags in a pair are the start tag and the end tag

  • The text between the start and end tags is the element content

  • The tags act as containers (they contain the element content), and should be properly nested

  • HTML tags are not case sensitive; <b>means the same as <B>

  • XHTML tags are case sensitive and must be lower case

    To ease the conversion from HTML to XHTML, it is better to use lowercase tags


PHP Language


PHP:HypertextPreprocessor

What is PHP Language

  • Other Names : Personal Home Page

  • Professional Home Page

  • An embedded scripting language for HTML like ASP or JSP

  • A language that combines elements of Perl, C, and Java

  • Is a server side scripting language

  • HTML generates the web page with the static text and images


  • Created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995 for tracking access to his resume

  • Originally a set of Perl scripts known as the “Personal Home Page” tools

  • Rewritten in C with database functionality

  • Added a forms interpreter and released as PHP/FI: includes Perl-like variables, and HTML embedded syntax

History Of PHP


  • Rewritten again in and released as version 2.0 in November of 1997

  • Estimated user base in 1997 is several thousand users and 50,000 web sites served

  • Rewritten again in late 1997 by Andi Gutmans and

  • Zeev Suraski

  • More functionality added, database support, protocols and APIs

History Of PHP (cont.)


  • User base in 1998 estimated 10,000 users and 100,000 web sites installed

  • Version 3.0 was released in June 1998 as PHP

  • Estimated user base in tens of thousands and hundreds of thousands of web sites served

  • The core is rewritten in 1998 by Zeev and Andi and dubbed the “Zend Engine”

History Of PHP (cont.)


  • The engine is introduced in mid 1999 and is released with version 4.0 in May of 2000

  • The estimated user base is hundreds of thousands of developers and several million of web sites served

  • Version 5.0 will include version 2.0 of the Zend Engine

    • New object model is more powerful and intuitive

    • Objects will no longer be passed by value; they now will be passed by reference

    • Increases performance and makes OOP more attractive

History Of PHP (cont.)


  • Netcraft Statistics

  • As of August 2004, PHP is used on 16,946,328

  • Domains, 1,348,793 IP Addresses , This is roughly 32% of all domains on the web.

  • History Of PHP (cont.)


    Example sites using PHP language :

    1- www.yahoo.com/index.php

    2- www.facebook.com/index.php

    3- www.up.edu.ps/index.php


    • Easy to UseCode is embedded into HTML. The PHP code is enclosed in special start and end tags that allow you to jump into and out of "PHP mode".

    • <html>   <head>       <title>University of Palestine</title>   </head>   <body><?php        echo "Hi, Welcome to University of Palestine !";        ?>  </body></html>

    Why is PHP used?


    • Cross PlatformRuns on almost any Web server on several operating systems.One of the strongest features is the wide range of supported databases

    • Web Servers:Apache, Microsoft IIS, Caudium, Netscape Enterprise Server

    • Operating Systems:UNIX (HP- UX, OpenBSD, Solaris, Linux), Mac OSX,

    • Windows NT/98/2000/XP/2003

    • Supported Databases:Adabas D, dBase,Empress, FilePro (read-only), Hyperwave,IBM DB2, Informix, Ingres, InterBase, FrontBase, mSQL, Direct MS-SQL, MySQL, ODBC, Oracle (OCI7 and OCI8), Ovrimos, PostgreSQL, SQLite, Solid, Sybase, Velocis,Unix dbm

    Why is PHP used?(cont.)


    • Cost BenefitsPHP is free. Open source code means that the entire PHP community will contribute towards bug fixes. There are several add-on technologies (libraries) for PHP that are also free.

    Why is PHP used?(cont.)


    • 4. primarily designed for web applications

    • 5. well optimized for the response times needed for web applications

    • 6. PHP Language is an open source

    Why is PHP used?(cont.)


    • Three basic data types

      • Integer

      • Double

      • String

    • More data types

      • Array

      • Object

    • PHP is an untyped language

      • variables type can change on the fly.

    PHP Data Type


    • ArabTeam Programmers : www.arabteam2000-forum.com/index.php

    • PHP Manual : http://docs.php.net/

    • PHP Tutorial : http://academ.hvcc.edu/~kantopet/php/index.php

    • PHP Coder : http://www.phpide.de/

    • Jedit : http://www.jedit.org/

    • PHP's creator offers his thoughts on the PHP phenomenon, what has shaped and motivated the language, and where the PHP movement is heading http://www.oracle.com/technology/pub/articles/php_experts/rasmus_php.html

    • Hotscripts – A large number of PHP scripts can be found at: http://hotscripts.com/PHP/Scripts_and_Programs/index.html

    :Additional Resources & References


    • Some of the new functions added in version 5:

    • Arrays:array_combine() - Creates an array by using one array for keys and another for its values

    • array_walk_recursive() - Apply a user function recursively to every member of an array

    • Date and Time Related:

    • idate() - Format a local time/date as integer

    • date_sunset() - Time of sunset for a given day and location

    • date_sunrise() - Time of sunrise for a given day and location

    • time_nanosleep() - Delay for a number of seconds and nano seconds

    • Strings:

    • str_split() - Convert a string to an array

    • strpbrk() - Search a string for any of a set of characters

    • substr_compare() - Binary safe optionally case insensitive comparison of two strings from an offset, up to length characters

    • Other:

    • php_check_syntax() - Check the syntax of the specified file

    • php_strip_whitespace() - Return source with stripped comments and whitespace

    :Additional Resources & References


    The end ……..


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