Managing Airfield PCC Pavements With Materials-Related Distress
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Managing Airfield PCC Pavements With Materials-Related Distress. 32 nd Annual Airport Conference Hershey, Pennsylvania March 4, 2009 David Peshkin, P.E. providing engineering solutions to improve pavement performance. Presentation Overview. Current practices in PCC pavement evaluation

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Managing Airfield PCC Pavements With Materials-Related Distress

32nd Annual Airport Conference

Hershey, Pennsylvania

March 4, 2009

David Peshkin, P.E.

providing engineering solutions to improve pavement performance

Presentation overview
Presentation Overview Distress

  • Current practices in PCC pavement evaluation

  • Observations and Issues

  • Needs

  • New developments

Current practices
Current Practices Distress

  • Guidelines and Procedures for Maintenance of Airfield Pavements, FAA AC 150/5380-6B, Chapter 3: Pavement Distress

  • Airport Pavement Condition Index Surveys, ASTM 5340-04

  • Others (PASER: 5320-17; ASR: 5380-8)

Faa ac 5380 6b
FAA AC 5380-6B Distress

Cracking: caused by stresses, overloading, loss of subgrade support, and insufficient and/or improperly cut joints.

  • Durability “D” Cracking

  • Shrinkage Cracking

Faa a c 5380 6b continued
FAA A/C 5380-6B (continued) Distress

Disintegration: caused by improper curing and finishing, unsuitable aggregates, and improper mixing

  • Scaling, Map Cracking, and Crazing

  • Joint Spalling

  • Corner Spalling

  • Shattered Slab/Intersection Cracks

  • Blowups

  • Popouts

  • Patching

Astm d 5340 airport pavement condition index surveys
ASTM D 5340 Airport Pavement Condition Index Surveys Distress

  • 15 distress types

  • Description, severity levels (L, M, H), how to count

  • Deduct curves

  • Causes discussed in “Description”

Astm d 5340 distress causes
ASTM D 5340: Distress Causes Distress

  • D cracking: concrete’s inability to withstand environmental factors

  • Popouts: freeze-thaw action in combination with expansive aggregates

  • Scaling, map cracking, and crazing: last two caused by overfinishing; scaling caused by deicing salts, improper construction, freeze-thaw cycles, poor aggregate. Also cement-aggregate interaction

Astm d 5340 distress causes continued
ASTM D 5340: Distress Causes (continued) Distress

  • Shrinkage: formed during setting and curing

  • Spalling: incompressibles, loadings, and overworking

Observations and issues
Observations and Issues Distress

  • PCI procedure effective tool in managing pavements

  • Used for both network- and project-level efforts

  • Additional insights from considering distress causes

Observations and issues continued
Observations and Issues (continued) Distress

  • Identification procedures combine descriptions and causes

  • Some distresses not well described

  • Procedure not particularly sensitive to the progressive deterioration of PCC with materials-related distress (MRD)

  • This has left airports with high PCIs and imminent need for major work

Needs Distress

  • Identification of MRD in the field

  • Prediction of progression of MRD

  • Understanding of the risk associated with MRD

New developments
New Developments Distress

  • Additional guidance from FAA (ASR Identification Handbook)

  • Modifications to the PCI procedure

  • Innovative Pavement Research Foundation (IPRF) projects, and specifically:

    IPRF Project 06-06 on MRD and Projected Pavement Life

Mrd inspection and rating procedure
MRD Inspection and Rating Procedure Distress

Supplement to the PCI

Applied if signs of MRD observed

Inspection procedure results in the calculation of a MRD rating (MRDR)

Inspection procedure development
Inspection Procedure Development Distress

Developed MRD handbook

Performed airport inspection

Used inspection, interviews with maintenance/ engineering staff to refine inspection procedure and identify distress progression sequences

Inspection procedure development continued
Inspection Procedure Development (continued) Distress

  • Refined survey procedure applied at second airport

  • Detailed survey administered

    • Fourteen respondents to survey

    • Used to establish distress progression sequences

  • Follow-up visits planned

    • Further refinements

    • Progression

Mrd manifestations
MRD Manifestations Distress

  • Interior Locations

    • A. Pattern Cracking (L, M)

    • B. Scaling (N/A)

    • C. Popouts (L, M, H)

    • D. Surface Honeycombing (L, M, H)

  • Joints and Corners

    • E. Sliver Spalling (N/A)

    • F. Perpendicular Cracking (L, M)

    • G. Parallel Cracking (L, M)

    • H. Joint Disintegration (N/A)

  • Overall

    • I. Staining (N/A)

    • J. Patching (L, M, H)

    • K. Expansion (Y/N)

Both f g
Both F & G Distress

Rating procedure development
Rating Procedure Development Distress

Severity of distress

Projected timing and type of future distress

Distress progression joint and corner
Distress Progression Distress(Joint and Corner)

Distress progression sequences
Distress Progression Sequences Distress

  • Corner deterioration A/P 1A/P 2

    • Staining to low severity cracking: 4.9 yr 3.5 yr

    • Low to medium severity cracking: 4.0 yr 2.6 yr

    • Medium to joint deterioration: 3.1 yr 2.5 yr

    • Staining to repair: 12 yr 8.6 yr

  • Joint Deterioration

    • Staining to low severity cracking: 2.0 yr 4.0 yr

    • Low to medium severity cracking: 2.0 yr 3.0 yr

    • Medium to joint deterioration: 2.1 yr 2.6 yr

    • Staining to repair: 6.1 yr 9.6 yr

Observations Distress

  • Interior distresses not as critical as corner and joint distresses

  • Staining is a precursor to cracking which leads to FOD

  • Locally, different factors will affect development and progression of distresses

Current status of rating
Current Status of Rating Distress

  • MRD data has been used to generate a single composite MRD Rating (MRDR)

    • No MRD, the rating is zero

    • Maximum is yet undefined

      • Currently headed toward 2000

  • Based on the MRDR, thresholds will be set where M&R decisions must be made

    • These need to be set

Future work
Future Work Distress

Reinspections to better understand rate of progression

Finalize inspection procedures

Complete distress progression sequencing

Finalize weighting scheme for determination of the MRDR

Prepare and submit final report next fall

Typical PCI Distress

Traditional Action

Decision Point

Level of Unacceptable Risk

Projected Risk

Risk Units (To be Determined)

MRD Decision Point

FOD Potential Curve



Expected impact
Expected Impact Distress

Does not take place of petrographic

analysis or other diagnostics!

More tools to identify signs of MRD in field

Procedure to monitor MRD progression

Link between MRDR and risk/action

Will supplement PCI where MRDs are identified

Thank you
Thank You! Distress

For questions or comments:

David Peshkin, P.E.

Applied Pavement Technology, Inc.

[email protected]