TEXT. By Jessica 2013. Paragraph I. ∆ human nature EX. 追求刺激是年輕人的天性因為他們充滿熱情與活力。 It is human nature that young people tend to pursue thrill because they are full of passion and energy. ∆ physical attractiveness Ex. 整形手術可以增進你的身體魅力，卻無法改善你內在的性格。
By Jessica 2013
∆ human nature
It is human nature that young people tend to pursue thrill because they are full of passion and energy.
∆ physical attractiveness
Cosmetic surgery can enhance your physical attractiveness, but can’t improve your inner personality.
∆ go to extremes = take a radical and irrational way
Ex. The gambler, who used to capitulate to his gambling impulse, went extremes by cutting down his thumb to assure his parents that he would turn over a new leaf.
∆ deprivethemselvesoffood= starve themselves either by throwing up what they have eaten after a meal or by eating little
EX. The heavy rain deprived the villagers of everything, including their houses, farms, and even family members.
∆ --- have stomach surgery to restrict the food intake that can be consumed in a short period of time.
► have/ undergo ---- surgery
►the food intake/ consumption
►that can be consumed/
taken in ---
►intake (N) / take in (V)
∆ malnutrition = poor/ wrong nutrition
Ex. According to research, tens of thousands of children die from malnutrition in Africa per year.
∆ fatal/ lethal / deadly side effects
Ex. The abuse of antibiotics will
cause fatal side effects because
bacteria’s resistance to the drug
will grow to a point where the strain
will become “invincible.”
∆ count for nothing = isn’t important
►count (V) be important
What counts most to senior students
is that they can pass APE with
∆ In addition to N
► Apart from N
► On top of N
∆ typical response = such
response is very common
Ex. Students’ typical response to do volunteering differ from person to person; some are glad to help others while some are reluctant.
∆ shoes with high heels
► high heels
Ex. Those whose work requires standing for long hours are suggested to wear air-sole shoes instead of high heels.
∆ They will undergo surgery to havetheir legs lengthened
► have N + VR (active)
+ PP (passive)
Ex. Tiring as Rita’s work is, she has the sheets washed every two weeks.
Ex. Because of the hair ban on length, soldiers must have their hair cut often.
∆ They will undergo the surgery tohave their legs lengthened, which is especially remarkable because the whole process ---- and requires spendingup to a year in a wheelchair.
► The surgery is very painful because the recipient of the limb lengthening surgery will be confined to a wheelchair for a year.
∆ The operation involves breaking the legs, drilling holes in them, inserting metal rods in each leg, and, allowing new bones to grow in these gaps.
►New bones and muscles will fill in the gaps and thus allow the legs to become longer.
∆ In spite of the fact that most patients have to --- and that there is no guarantee that the surgery will succeed, hundreds of people have the surgery done every year.
► In spite of the fact that / While S+V
EX. Most people believe that annual checkup will ensure their health whilethere is no guarantee that they can enjoy longevity because life is full of unpredictable factors.
∆ --- many of them endanger/ risk their health as well as their future (only) to become crippled.
► (only) to VR 卻 ----
EX. Many children went home from school
(only) to find their houses sealed and parents
Upon getting the phone call, the police rushed to
the scene as soon as possible only to found the
robber vanished without a trace.
∆ People in the contemporary/modern world are concerned about their appearance. Nevertheless/ Nonetheless, it is not just in modern timesthat(分裂句) people have become obsessed by looking attractive and have risked their health as a result.
► be obsessed by Ving /N 癡迷/迷戀
Ex. He is completely obsessed by computers
and has lost himself in the cyber world.
EX. The dream to produce the most
sensational newspaper story obsesses most
► obsession with N 沉迷/著魔/ 不可自拔
EX. Her fear of flying is bordering on obsession.
► obsessive (a) think too much about sth
EX. With the decline in profits, the owner of the
company has become more obsessive about
► bi-polar disorder
∆ --- dark skin was widely perceived/seen as unattractive
► perceive (V) to notice/ to see
Ex. Little did I perceive his weird
behavior until he uttered some
Ex. The patient was perceived
to have difficulty breathing
after the injection of Penicillin.
∆ --- many ancient Greeks and Romans applied/ wore/ put on certain make-up ---.
∆ it never occurred tothem that S+V 他們從沒想過--
► It occurred tosb that S+V
► It dawned onsbthat S+V
► It strucksb that S+V
► It hitsb that S+V * sb hit uponsth
It occurred to me that I had an appointment with the dentist this afternoon.
It dawned on me that ----
It struck me that ----
It hit me that ----
* I suddenly hit upon the appointment with the dentist this afternoon.
When I was going to paid for the dinner, it occurred to methat my purse was lying on the table at home.
∆ In contrast to/ By contrast to ancient times, pale
skin is not that appealing to people nowadays.
►People’s aesthetic feeling changes over time.
∆ --- go to tanning salons or take tanning pills to
keep up with this fashion/ trend.
EX. Those who lag behind
have to reexamine their study
methods to keep up with
∆ --- have hazardous/ perilous consequences
∆ artificial tans are achieved with the use of
tanning beds, which have been linked to skin
►Ultraviolet rays are blamed for/
are the contributing
∆ Using a tanning bed ---- increases the risk of
contracting/ developing skin cancer by 55
Ex. Premature babies are more likely to contract
diseases because their immune system has not
∆ tanning pills contain certain kinds of additives
that are actually dangerous, even for short-term
Ex. For the sake of public safety, artificial
additives are unapproved for human consumption.
EX. The addition of new
bloods will definitely bring
about changes of our club
with their fresh ideas.
∆ Not only do these pills cause an itchy rash to develop all over the skin, but they may also lead to an eye disease.
EX. The girl develops an allergy to
seafood. A bit of seafood will cause
∆ It seems that whichever way people choose,
getting artificially tanned will end up costing
► whichever --- 有範圍 / whatever ---- 無範圍
► end up prep. N
EX. At first I thought this minor mistake was
fine, but it ended up ruining my business.
EX. Travelling around the world, the man
ended up in Paris.
►cost sb dear / cost sb an arm and a leg/ cost sb
a lot of money
∆ It’s normal for us to try various ways to enhance/ improve our appearance, as/ because looking good might increase/ boost our confidence and make us happy.
∆ excluding the often perilous methods----, there are still multiple other ones/ many other methods that we can take advantage of/ make good use of/ utilize, such as getting ---- exercise---.
∆ exclude (V)
To loose weight, many people exclude
carbohydrates from their meals. Without enough
carbohydrates, they won’t have enough energy
to stay physically healthy.
► exclusive of N
Ex. Everyone has to take the test,
exclusive of the one who has