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Animal diversity. Fig. 18-0a. Colonial protists as ancestors of modern animals. Fig. 18-2a. Somatic cells. Digestive cavity. Reproductive cells. Infolding. Colonial protist, an aggregate of identical cells. Hollow sphere of unspecial- ized cells. Beginning of cell specialization.

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Fig. 18-0a

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Animal diversity

Fig. 18-0a


Colonial protists as ancestors of modern animals

Fig. 18-2a

Somatic

cells

Digestive

cavity

Reproductive cells

Infolding

Colonial protist,

an aggregate

of identical cells

Hollow sphere

of unspecial-

ized cells

Beginning of cell

specialization

Gastrula-like

“proto-animal”

2

5

4

3

1


What makes an animal an animal? Internal digestion

Fig. 18-5d

Most sponges have no symmetry, but the Choanocyte shown here has radial symmetry


Evolution of multicellularity leading to the animal kingdom

Choanoflagellate colonies Sponge coanocytes Single choanoflagellate

Recent studies suggest that choanoflagellates are cousins to all animals in the same way that chimpanzees are cousins to humans. From left, a choanoflagellate colony, feeding cells (coanocytes) of sponges that resemble choanoflagellates and a choanoflagellate with its long flagellum and collar of filaments. There can be millions of choanoflagellates in a gallon of sea water. (Sean Carroll, New York Times, 12/13/2010)


Digestive tract and body cavity (coelom)

Body covering

(from ectoderm)

Fig. 18-3b

Coelom

Tissue layer

lining coelom

and suspending

internal organs

(from mesoderm)

Digestive tract

(from endoderm)

Complete gut


Symmetry – radial and bilateral

Dorsal surface

Top

Fig. 18-3a

Anterior

end

Posterior

end

Ventral surface

Bottom


No true

tissues

Sponges

Radial

symmetry

Cnidarians

Ancestral

colonial

protist

Echinoderms

Fig. 18-4

Deuterostomes

Chordates (humans)

Eumetazoans

True

tissues

Flatworms

Bilaterians

Bilateral

symmetry

Molluscs

Protostomes

Annelids

Arthropods

Body plans of animals helps reconstruct animal evolution

Nematodes


Sperm

Egg

1

Meiosis

Key

Fig. 18-1b-1

Haploid (n)

Diploid (2n)

Adult


Sperm

Egg

2

1

Meiosis

Zygote

(fertilized

egg)

Key

Fig. 18-1b-2

Haploid (n)

Diploid (2n)

Adult


Sperm

Egg

2

1

Meiosis

Zygote

(fertilized

egg)

3

Key

Fig. 18-1b-3

Haploid (n)

Diploid (2n)

Eight-cell

stage

Adult


Sperm

Egg

2

1

Meiosis

Zygote

(fertilized

egg)

3

Key

Fig. 18-1b-4

Haploid (n)

Diploid (2n)

Eight-cell

stage

Adult

4

Blastula

(cross

section)


Sperm

Egg

2

1

Meiosis

Zygote

(fertilized

egg)

3

Key

Fig. 18-1b-5

Haploid (n)

Diploid (2n)

Eight-cell

stage

Adult

4

Blastula

(cross

section)

5

Early gastrula

(cross section)


Sperm

Egg

2

1

Meiosis

Zygote

(fertilized

egg)

3

Key

Fig. 18-1b-6

Haploid (n)

Diploid (2n)

Eight-cell

stage

Adult

4

Blastula

(cross

section)

Ectoderm

5

Early gastrula

(cross section)

Endoderm

6

Internal sac

Future mesoderm

Later gastrula

(cross section)


Sperm

Egg

2

1

Meiosis

Zygote

(fertilized

egg)

3

Key

Fig. 18-1b-7

Haploid (n)

Diploid (2n)

Eight-cell

stage

Adult

4

Blastula

(cross

section)

Digestive

tract

Ectoderm

5

Larva

7

Early gastrula

(cross section)

Endoderm

6

Internal sac

Future mesoderm

Later gastrula

(cross section)


Sperm

Egg

2

1

Meiosis

Zygote

(fertilized

egg)

3

Key

Fig. 18-1b-8

Haploid (n)

Diploid (2n)

Eight-cell

stage

Adult

8

Metamorphosis

4

Blastula

(cross

section)

Digestive

tract

Ectoderm

5

Larva

7

Early gastrula

(cross section)

Endoderm

6

Internal sac

Future mesoderm

Later gastrula

(cross section)


Tunicates

Chordates

Ancestral

chordate

Lancelets

Hagfishes

Brain

Craniates

Fig. 19-1

Lampreys

Head

Vertebrates

Sharks, rays

Vertebral column

Ray-finned fishes

Jawed vertebrates

Jaws

Lobe-fins

Lungs or lung derivatives

Amphibians

Lobed fins

Tetrapods

Reptiles

Legs

Amniotes

Amniotic egg

Mammals

Milk


Carboniferous

Devonian

Eusthenopteron

Pandericthys

Tiktaalik

Fig. 19-4ab

Tetrapod evolution from the fossile record

Acanthostega

Ichthyostega

Tetrapod with no gills,

limbs better-adapted

for bearing weight

Time known

to exist

360

340

300

280

0

400

320

420

380

260

Millions of years ago


Carboniferous

Devonian

Fig. 19-4ac

Modern

amphibians

Reptiles (including birds) and mammals

Time known

to exist

340

320

260

0

420

400

300

280

380

360

Millions of years ago


Fig. 19-6c


Wing claw

(like dinosaur)

Teeth

(like dinosaur)

Fig. 19-7a

A bird is a feathered reptile able to fly

Long tail with

many vertebrae

(like dinosaur)

Feathers


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