Chapter 10
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This is OIL…not blood…or ink. . Chapter 10. America’s Economic Revolution. The Industrial Revolution needed…. Large population—industry needed a large workforce to make the goods and to consume them Ability to grow enough food to feed the workforce Raw materials to supply industry

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

This is OIL…not blood…or ink.

Chapter 10

America’s Economic Revolution


The industrial revolution needed

The Industrial Revolution needed…

  • Large population—industry needed a large workforce to make the goods and to consume them

  • Ability to grow enough food to feed the workforce

  • Raw materials to supply industry

  • Technology for large scale manufacturing

  • Transportation

  • Business practices that allowed for the management of large industrial enterprises


American population 1820 1840

American Population 1820-1840

There were 3 population trends…

Population Increase

  • Population was increasingly rapidly—both through natural birth and immigration

Gentlemen…this is the woman you want to be the mother of your children…if you’re afraid of the zombie apocalypse


American population 1820 18401

American Population 1820-1840

There were 3 population trends…

Population Shift

  • People moved from Countryside to Urban Centers in the Northeast and Northwest


American population 1820 18402

American Population 1820-1840

There were 3 population trends…

Westward Migration

  • People continue to move farther and farther west, crossing the Mississippi in larger numbers.


W hy was there a population boom

Why was there a population boom?

  • Improvements in public health

    • High birth rate—average white woman had 6.14 children

    • Cities became better at managing public health, waste, disease, and cleanliness/hygiene

  • European Immigration—1830’s saw a drastic increase in European Immigration


Immigrants and urban growth 1840 1860

Immigrants and Urban Growth 1840-1860

  • Urban communities needed rural communities for materials and food/rural communities needed urban communities for goods and capital

  • Cities grew because of their location

    • Near waterways, large depositories of materials, markets

  • In the 1850s the U.S. population grew from 23 million people to 31 million people

    • Of these, 1.5 million were European Immigrants


The irish and the germans

The Irish and the Germans

Most European Immigrants of this era came from Ireland and Germany

  • Germany

    • Immigrants were mostly young men and families

    • Came with money and skills, ready to work in factories or buy land for farming

  • Ireland

    • Immigrants were mostly young single women

    • Came with no money, little skills, found work in textile mills in cities

    • Came to escape the “Potato Famine” 1845-49

      • 1 million Irish died


The rise of nativism

The Rise of Nativism

  • NATIVISM—A defense of native-born people and a hostility to foreign born people.

    • Wanted the government to slow or stop immigration.

  • THE “KNOW-NOTHINGS”—a political party officially called The Supreme Order of the Star Spankled Banner.

    • Wanted reading tests to vote, didn’t want non-native borns to hold public office.

    • Eventually they would become the American Party. They were strong in the early 1850’s in the East.

Key Question

Why do you think this era saw this type of bigotry and divisiveness?


The canal age

The Canal Age

  • 1790-1820—the “Turnpike Era” many roads were built

  • 1820-1840—the “Canal Age” many canals were built

  • Steamboats carried corn and wheat from the Northwest and cotton and tobacco from the South to New Orleans where it was shipped to New York, San Francisco and to Europe

  • The West and the East wanted a quicker, cheaper way to ship goods…thus canals!!!

  • Canals were too expensive to be built by private companies so local and State governments paid for them…Take that FEDERALISTS!

    Why would state governments foot the bill?


Roads vs canals

Roads vs. Canals

1.5 Tons, 18 miles per day

100 Tons, 24 miles per day

VS


The erie canal

The Erie Canal

  • 350 miles long

  • 40 wide and 40 feet deep

  • Started in 1817, finished in 1825

  • Was paid for in 7 years of tolls

  • Made New York the fastest growing, wealthiest and most influential city in the country…TAKE THAT PITTSBURG!!!!

  • Helped bring settlers west


The early railroads

The Early Railroads

  • Early Railroads started with the invention of…

    • Tracks—many differed in size and shape (which was a problem) why?

    • Steam Powered Locomotive—Spanish for “Crazy Train” (that’s where the expression “All aboard the Crazy Train, ChooChoo” comes from)

    • Train Cars carried both goods and passengers

  • 1st Track was in Baltimore in 1830—13 miles long

  • By 1836, 1,000 miles of track had be laid in the U.S.

  • Canals and Railroads competed for business.

    Who do you think won and why?????????


Triumph of the rails

Triumph of the Rails

  • 1840—2,818 miles of track in the U.S.

  • 1850—9,021 miles of track in the U.S.

  • 1860—27,679 mils of track in the U.S.

  • Chicago becomes the rail center of the West

    • 100 trains move in and out of Chicago every day


Railroad investment

Railroad Investment

  • Building and operating railroads required a lot of capital and a lot of investment which came from…

    • Small local investors

    • Large foreign investors—mostly German and British

    • Local governments

    • The Federal Government in the form of Public Land Grants

      • 1860 Congress had given Railroad companies 30 million acres of land to the railroad companies

      • Who didn’t like this and why?


Innovation in communication and journalism

Innovation in Communication and Journalism

  • 1844 Samuel Morse invents the Magnetic Telegraph—TEXT MESSAGING IS BORN!

    • Uses the cleared land of train tracks to run wires between train stations and cities. Symbiotic relationship.

    • The Telegraph separated the North and South further because the North had this new, fast, technological type of communication why the South was slow to build telegraph lines.

      WHY?


Telegraph wire

Telegraph Wire

  • By 1860 50,000 miles of Telegraph wire crisscrossed the U.S.

    • The wires could go around the Earth twice!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Telegraph wire1

Telegraph Wire

  • Or that’s like driving from Athens to 7-11 on Long Lake and John R. 50,000 Times!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • Wow Mr. Flessa… way to make our learning real world relevant!

  • Says student fascinated by this bit of trivia!

+50,000 Times


Journalism

Journalism

  • 1846 Richard Hoe (Giggitty) invented the Steam Cylinder Rotary Press

    • Allows for cheaper quicker production of newspapers

  • 1846 the Associated Press is formed

    • A cooperative of news gathering sources that share news, information, and stories through telegraph wires

  • Further separated the North and South since most publication was done in the North


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