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CHAPTER 20 SPECIFIC CATABOLIC PATHWAYS LIPIDS PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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CHAPTER 20 SPECIFIC CATABOLIC PATHWAYS LIPIDS. ADIPOSE TISSUE. 90% of adipose tissue is triglycerides It supplies energy. Insulation. Provides minor physical protection Cholestrol storage. HYDROLYSIS. GLYCEROL. GLUCOSE. GLYCOLYSIS. PYRUVATE. b -Oxidation.

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CHAPTER 20 SPECIFIC CATABOLIC PATHWAYS LIPIDS

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Chapter 20 specific catabolic pathways lipids

CHAPTER 20

SPECIFIC CATABOLIC PATHWAYS

LIPIDS


Adipose tissue

ADIPOSE TISSUE

  • 90% of adipose tissue is triglycerides

  • It supplies energy.

  • Insulation.

  • Provides minor physical protection

  • Cholestrol storage


Hydrolysis

HYDROLYSIS


Glycerol

GLYCEROL

GLUCOSE

GLYCOLYSIS

PYRUVATE


B oxidation

b-Oxidation

  • -Oxidation: a series of five enzyme-catalyzed reactions that cleaves carbon atoms two at a time from the carboxyl end of a fatty acid.

    • Reaction 1: the fatty acid is activated by conversion to an acylCoA


Oxidation

-OXIDATION

Blue box =  carbon

Red box = acetyl CoA


Oxidation1

-OXIDATION

  • Activation by addition Coenzyme-A

  •  carbon oxidized from CH2 to C=O (ketone)

  • Molecule split into acetyl CoA and Fatty acid 2 carbons shorter

  • Another Coenzyme-A added to shortened Fatty acid


Chapter 20 specific catabolic pathways lipids

Each cycle produces 1 acetyl-CoA

18 carbon fatty acid would give 9 acetyl-CoA

Cycles required is # of carbons/2 – 1

18 carbon fatty acid would require 8 cycles

Amount of energy from Fatty Acid depends on length of carbon chain

18 carbon fatty acid would give 146 ATP


Fatty acid biosynthesis

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

  • While degradation of fatty acids takes place in mitochondria, the majority of fatty acid synthesis takes place in the cytosol.

  • These two pathways have in common that they both involve acetyl CoA.

    • Acetyl CoA is the end product of each spiral of b-oxidation.

    • Fatty acids are synthesized two carbon atoms at a time.

    • The source of these two carbons is the acetyl group of acetyl CoA.

  • The key to fatty acid synthesis is a multienzyme complex called acyl carrier protein, ACP-SH.


Fatty acid biosynthesis1

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

  • ACP has a side chain that carries the growing fatty acid

  • ACP rotates counterclockwise, and its side chain sweeps over the multienzyme system (empty spheres).


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