Grain, Oil, and Specialty Field-Crop Production. by Larry Stine Estherville Lincoln Central High School. Competencies:. define important terms used in crop production identify major crops grown for grain, oil, and special purposes
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Grain, Oil, and Specialty Field-Crop Production
Estherville Lincoln Central High School
Flour or soft corn
Soft red winterHard red winter
Hard red springWhite
Adding bulk to the diet
Adding protein to the diet
Green manure crop
Manufacture of syrup or sugar
Making of brooms
500 lbs. oil
800 lbs. meal
700 lbs. shell
Cereal crops-grown for their edible seeds
Seed legume crops-nitrogen-fixing crops that produce edible seeds
Root crops-grown for their thick, fleshy storage roots
Forage crops-grown for hay, silage, or pastures for livestock feed
Sugar crops-grown for their ability to store sugars in their stems or roots
Oil crops-produced for the oil content of their seeds
Tuber crops-grown for their thickened, underground storage stems
Stimulant crops-grown for their ability to stimulate the sense of the user
1. Crops that will grow and produce the desired yields under the type of climate available.
2. Crops that are adapted to the type of soil available.
3. Demand on market available for the crop to be produced.
4. Labor requirements and availability of labor for the crop.
5. Machinery and equipment necessary to grow the crop.
6. Availability of enough land to justify production of the crop.
7. Pest-control problems.
8. Expected yields.
9. Anticipated production costs.
Conventional tillage-land is plowed with a moldboard plow
Minimum tillage-seedbed is prepared only enough so that the seed can make contact with the soil and germinate
No-till-planting seeds directly into the residue of the previous crop
Row crop planters-plant seeds in precise rows with even spacing within the rows
Drill planters-plant seeds in narrow rows at high population rates
Broadcast planters-scatter the seed in a random pattern on top of the seedbed
Date to plant
Germination rate of seeds
Uniformity of seed
Insect and disease control problems
Type of soil
Egyptians used water from the Nile River for irrigation
Chinese and Native Americans used irrigation
Sprinklers-spray water through the air, much like rainfall
Surface irrigation-water gets to the crop by gravity, flowing over the surface of the soil or in ditches or furrows
Subsurface irrigation-supplies water to the roots of crops underground
Mechanical pest controlGenetic control
Cultural pest controlChemical control
Biological pest control
Pulling or mowing weeds
Use of screens, barriers, traps, and electricity
Timing farming operations to eliminate pests
Planting resistant varieties
Planting trap crops that are more attractive to insects than is the primary crop
Release of sterile male insects
Uses of baits and repellents
Cutting the crop
Threshing the crop
Separating crop from debris
Cleaning the crop