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L 0. A. L 1. B. C. D. L 2. E. F. Breadth-First Search. Outline and Reading. Breadth-first search ( § 6.3.3) Algorithm Example Properties Analysis Applications DFS vs. BFS ( § 6.3.3) Comparison of applications Comparison of edge labels.

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breadth first search

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Breadth-First Search

Breadth-First Search

outline and reading
Outline and Reading
  • Breadth-first search (§6.3.3)
    • Algorithm
    • Example
    • Properties
    • Analysis
    • Applications
  • DFS vs. BFS (§6.3.3)
    • Comparison of applications
    • Comparison of edge labels

Breadth-First Search

breadth first search3
Breadth-first search (BFS) is a general technique for traversing a graph

A BFS traversal of a graph G

Visits all the vertices and edges of G

Determines whether G is connected

Computes the connected components of G

Computes a spanning forest of G

BFS on a graph with n vertices and m edges takes O(n + m ) time

BFS can be further extended to solve other graph problems

Find and report a path with the minimum number of edges between two given vertices

Find a simple cycle, if there is one

Breadth-First Search

Breadth-First Search

example

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Example

unexplored vertex

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visited vertex

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unexplored edge

discovery edge

cross edge

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Breadth-First Search

example cont

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Example (cont.)

Breadth-First Search

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Example (cont.)

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Breadth-First Search

bfs algorithm
BFS Algorithm

AlgorithmBFS(G, s)

L0new empty sequence

L0.insertLast(s)

setLabel(s, VISITED)

i  0

while Li.isEmpty()

Li +1new empty sequence

for all v  Li.elements() for all e  G.incidentEdges(v)

ifgetLabel(e) = UNEXPLORED

w opposite(v,e)

if getLabel(w) = UNEXPLORED

setLabel(e, DISCOVERY)

setLabel(w, VISITED)

Li +1.insertLast(w)

else

setLabel(e, CROSS)

i  i +1

  • The algorithm uses a mechanism for setting and getting “labels” of vertices and edges

AlgorithmBFS_all(G)

Inputgraph G

Outputlabeling of the edges and partition of the vertices of G

for all u  G.vertices()

setLabel(u, UNEXPLORED)

for all e  G.edges()

setLabel(e, UNEXPLORED)

for all v  G.vertices()

ifgetLabel(v) = UNEXPLORED

BFS(G, v)

Breadth-First Search

properties
Notation

Gs: connected component of s

Property 1

BFS(G, s) visits all the vertices and edges of Gs

Property 2

The discovery edges labeled by BFS(G, s) form a spanning tree Ts of Gs

Property 3

For each vertex v in Li

The path of Ts from s to v has i edges

Every path from s to v in Gshas at least i edges

Properties

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Breadth-First Search

analysis
Setting/getting a vertex/edge label takes O(1) time

Each vertex is labeled twice

once as UNEXPLORED

once as VISITED

Each edge is labeled twice

once as UNEXPLORED

once as DISCOVERY or CROSS

Each vertex is inserted once into a sequence Li

Method incidentEdges is called once for each vertex

BFS runs in O(n + m) time provided the graph is represented by the adjacency list structure

Recall that Sv deg(v)= 2m

Analysis

Breadth-First Search

applications
Applications
  • Using the template method pattern, we can specialize the BFS traversal of a graph Gto solve the following problems in O(n + m) time
    • Compute the connected components of G
    • Compute a spanning forest of G
    • Find a simple cycle in G, or report that G is a forest
    • Given two vertices of G, find a path in G between them with the minimum number of edges, or report that no such path exists

Breadth-First Search

dfs vs bfs

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DFS vs. BFS

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DFS

BFS

Breadth-First Search

dfs vs bfs cont
Back edge(v,w)

w is an ancestor of v in the tree of discovery edges

Cross edge(v,w)

w is in the same level as v or in the next level in the tree of discovery edges

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DFS vs. BFS (cont.)

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DFS

BFS

Breadth-First Search

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