Review of Result Clauses
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Review of Result Clauses (page 334) 1. In English the verb in a clause of result is expressed by the indicative mood because a result is something that actually happened. A fact is stated. In Latin the verb is in the subjunctive

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Review of Result Clauses (page 334)

1. In English the verb in a clause of result is expressed by the indicative mood because a result

is something that actually happened. A fact is stated. In Latin the verb is in the subjunctive

mood, and the clause, whether affirmative or negative, is introduced by ut. In a negative clause

the negative adverb non is placed before the verb. In the English translation the auxiliary verbs

may, might, should, would are never used.

2. In Latin as in English, some word in the main clause serves as a warning indicator that a

result clause is coming. Ita and sic, both of which mean so, are usually used with verbs.

Tam, also meaning so, is used with adjectives and adverbs.Tantus, so great, talis, such, and tot,

so many, are adjectives.

Romani tam fortiter pugnaverunt ut hostes superarent.

The Romans fought so bravely that they overcame the enemy.

Numerus hostium erat tantus ut Romani eos non superarent.

The number of the enemy was so great that the Romans did not overcome them.


Review of Clauses Expressing Purpose (Page 321)

1. In English when we say: He comes to school to study, the infinitive expresses the purpose

of his coming. Instead of an infinitive in a simple sentence, we may use a clause in a complex

sentence: He comes to school in order that he may study.

2. In Latin prose we do not use an infinitive to express purpose. We must use a subordinate

clause introduced by ut if the clause is positive; by ne, if negative. After verbs meaning

choose, send, or leave, purpose may be expressed by a relative clause. The antecedent of the

relative pronoun (qui quae quod)is usually the object of the main verb.

Pugnant ut vincant.They fight to conquer

(in order that they may conquer).

Pugnant ne vincantur. They fight in order not to be conquered

(in order that they may not be conquered; lest they may be conquered).

Nuntios qui haec dicant mittimus. We are sending messengers to say these things

(who may (shall) say these things).


Review of the Sequence of Tense Rules for the Subjunctive Mood (Page 341)

SEQUENCE IF THE MAIN VERB IS: THE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE USES:

Primary present1.the present subjunctive

future (to express same time as the main verb)

future perfect

2.the perfect subjunctive

(to express time before that of the main verb)

Secondaryimperfect 1.the imperfect subjunctive

perfect (to express same time as the main verb)

pluperfect

2. the pluperfect subjunctive

(to express time before that of the main verb)


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