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2 .2 . THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. The body’s communication systems help maintain homeostasis. A stimulus causes a response. Responses can be chemical, cellular, or behavioral. The nervous system responds to stimuli. The nervous system controls thoughts, movement, and emotion. spinal chord.

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slide1

2.2

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

the body s communication systems help maintain homeostasis
The body’s communication systems help maintain homeostasis.
  • A stimulus causes a response.
    • Responses can be chemical, cellular, or behavioral.
    • The nervous system responds to stimuli.
slide4

spinal chord

nerves

  • The nervous system works quickly, using chemical and electrical signals.
  • interconnected network of cells
  • signals move through cells
  • divided into central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the nervous system s two parts work together
The nervous system’s two parts work together.
  • The CNS includes the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord.
  • The PNS includes four systems of nerves.
the cns processes information
The CNS processes information.
  • The brain has three parts.
    • cerebrum controls thought, movement, emotion
lobes of the brain
Lobes of the Brain

There is a fifth lobe, known as the limbic lobe, that is responsible for emotions

the cns processes information1

midbrain

Brainstem

pons

medulla oblongata

The CNS processes information.
  • The brain has three parts.
    • cerebrum controls thought, movement, emotion
    • cerebellum allows for balance
    • brain stem (reptilian brain) controls basic life functions
slide9

midbrain

pons

medulla oblongata

  • midbrain controls some reflexes
  • pons regulates breathing
  • medulla oblongata controls heart function, swallowing, coughing
  • The brain stem has three parts.
slide10

interneuron

motor neurons

sensory neuron

  • sensory neuron sends impulse to spinal cord
  • spinal cord directs impulse to motor neuron
  • does not involve the brain
  • See simulation with online textbook
  • The spinal cord controls reflexes.
the pns gathers and transmits information
The PNS gathers and transmits information
  • links the CNS to muscles and other organs.
  • The somatic nervous system regulates voluntary movements.
the pns gathers and transmits information1
The PNS gathers and transmits information
  • The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary, functions
    • sympathetic nervous system:
      • “fight vs. flight”
      • Involved in all internal adjustments that prepares the body for action or increased levels of stress.
    • parasympathetic nervous system:
      • sends impulses that return a body to “normal” functioning after a period of stress is over,
      • conserves energy
slide13
Fine adjustments made so glands and organs are functioning at levels appropriate to a body at a particular time:
slide14

Sensory receptor generates impulse.

  • PNS passes impulse to CNS.
  • CNS interprets impulse.
  • CNS passes impulse to PNS.
  • PNS stimulates a response.
  • The CNS and PNS pass signals between one another.
basic organization

Sensory Input triggered by stimuli

    • conduction of signals to processing center
  • Integration
    • interpretation of sensory signals within processing centers
  • Motor output
    • conduction of signals to effector cells (i.e. muscles, gland cells)
Basic Organization

sensory receptor (sensory input)  integration  (motor output)  effector

nerves
Nerves
  • Nerves, which carry the electrical impulses to various parts of the nervous system, are made up of a bundles of cells, known as neurons
neurons are highly specialized cells

Cell body

1

Neurons are highly specialized cells.
  • A neuron has 3 main parts.
    • cell body contains nucleus and organelles
neurons are highly specialized cells1

2

dendrites

Neurons are highly specialized cells.
  • A neuron has three parts.
    • cell body has nucleus and organelles
    • dendrites receive impulses
neurons are highly specialized cells2

3

axon

Neurons are highly specialized cells.
  • A neuron has three parts.
    • cell body has nucleus and organelles
    • dendrites receive impulses
    • axoncarries (transmits) impulses
slide20

Schwann cell makes up the myelin sheath, which insulates the axon

  • Neurons have other structures to transmit signals.
slide21

Schwann cell makes up the myelin sheath, which insulates the axon

  • Nodes of Ranvier – the gaps between the myelin sheath that speed up the process of transmitting impulses.
  • Neurons have other structures to transmit signals.
slide22

Schwann cell makes up the myelin sheath, which insulates the axon

  • Nodes of Ranvier – the gaps between the myelin sheath that speed up the process of transmitting impulses.
  • Neurons have other structures to transmit signals.
  • Axon terminal – part through which the impulse leaves.

axon terminal

slide23

synapse

  • Schwann cell makes up the myelin sheath, which insulates the axon
  • Nodes of Ranvier – the gaps between the myelin sheath that speed up the process of transmitting impulses.
  • Neurons have other structures to transmit signals.
  • Axon terminal – part through which the impulse leaves.
  • synapse gap between the neuron and the next cell.
types of neurons
Types of Neurons
  • Sensory Neuron: detect stimuli and transmit signals to the brain and the spinal cord, which are both made up of interneurons.
  • Interneurons: receive signals from sensory neurons and relay them within the brain and the spinal cord. Process information and pass signals to motor neurons.
  • Motor neurons: pass messages from the NS to other tissues in the body, such as muscles
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