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2 .2. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. The body’s communication systems help maintain homeostasis. A stimulus causes a response. Responses can be chemical, cellular, or behavioral. The nervous system responds to stimuli. The nervous system controls thoughts, movement, and emotion. spinal chord.

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2.2

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


The body s communication systems help maintain homeostasis

The body’s communication systems help maintain homeostasis.

  • A stimulus causes a response.

    • Responses can be chemical, cellular, or behavioral.

    • The nervous system responds to stimuli.


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  • The nervous system controls thoughts, movement, and emotion.


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spinal chord

nerves

  • The nervous system works quickly, using chemical and electrical signals.

  • interconnected network of cells

  • signals move through cells

  • divided into central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)


The nervous system s two parts work together

The nervous system’s two parts work together.

  • The CNS includes the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord.

  • The PNS includes four systems of nerves.


The cns processes information

The CNS processes information.

  • The brain has three parts.

    • cerebrum controls thought, movement, emotion


Lobes of the brain

Lobes of the Brain

There is a fifth lobe, known as the limbic lobe, that is responsible for emotions


The cns processes information1

midbrain

Brainstem

pons

medulla oblongata

The CNS processes information.

  • The brain has three parts.

    • cerebrum controls thought, movement, emotion

    • cerebellum allows for balance

    • brain stem (reptilian brain) controls basic life functions


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midbrain

pons

medulla oblongata

  • midbrain controls some reflexes

  • pons regulates breathing

  • medulla oblongata controls heart function, swallowing, coughing

  • The brain stem has three parts.


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interneuron

motor neurons

sensory neuron

  • sensory neuron sends impulse to spinal cord

  • spinal cord directs impulse to motor neuron

  • does not involve the brain

  • See simulation with online textbook

  • The spinal cord controls reflexes.


The pns gathers and transmits information

The PNS gathers and transmits information

  • links the CNS to muscles and other organs.

  • The somatic nervous system regulates voluntary movements.


The pns gathers and transmits information1

The PNS gathers and transmits information

  • The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary, functions

    • sympathetic nervous system:

      • “fight vs. flight”

      • Involved in all internal adjustments that prepares the body for action or increased levels of stress.

    • parasympathetic nervous system:

      • sends impulses that return a body to “normal” functioning after a period of stress is over,

      • conserves energy


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Fine adjustments made so glands and organs are functioning at levels appropriate to a body at a particular time:


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  • Sensory receptor generates impulse.

  • PNS passes impulse to CNS.

  • CNS interprets impulse.

  • CNS passes impulse to PNS.

  • PNS stimulates a response.

  • The CNS and PNS pass signals between one another.


Basic organization

  • Sensory Input triggered by stimuli

    • conduction of signals to processing center

  • Integration

    • interpretation of sensory signals within processing centers

  • Motor output

    • conduction of signals to effector cells (i.e. muscles, gland cells)

Basic Organization

sensory receptor (sensory input)  integration  (motor output)  effector


Nerves

Nerves

  • Nerves, which carry the electrical impulses to various parts of the nervous system, are made up of a bundles of cells, known as neurons


Neurons are highly specialized cells

Cell body

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Neurons are highly specialized cells.

  • A neuron has 3 main parts.

    • cell body contains nucleus and organelles


Neurons are highly specialized cells1

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dendrites

Neurons are highly specialized cells.

  • A neuron has three parts.

    • cell body has nucleus and organelles

    • dendrites receive impulses


Neurons are highly specialized cells2

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axon

Neurons are highly specialized cells.

  • A neuron has three parts.

    • cell body has nucleus and organelles

    • dendrites receive impulses

    • axoncarries (transmits) impulses


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  • Schwann cell makes up the myelin sheath, which insulates the axon

  • Neurons have other structures to transmit signals.


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  • Schwann cell makes up the myelin sheath, which insulates the axon

  • Nodes of Ranvier – the gaps between the myelin sheath that speed up the process of transmitting impulses.

  • Neurons have other structures to transmit signals.


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  • Schwann cell makes up the myelin sheath, which insulates the axon

  • Nodes of Ranvier – the gaps between the myelin sheath that speed up the process of transmitting impulses.

  • Neurons have other structures to transmit signals.

  • Axon terminal – part through which the impulse leaves.

axon terminal


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synapse

  • Schwann cell makes up the myelin sheath, which insulates the axon

  • Nodes of Ranvier – the gaps between the myelin sheath that speed up the process of transmitting impulses.

  • Neurons have other structures to transmit signals.

  • Axon terminal – part through which the impulse leaves.

  • synapse gap between the neuron and the next cell.


Types of neurons

Types of Neurons

  • Sensory Neuron: detect stimuli and transmit signals to the brain and the spinal cord, which are both made up of interneurons.

  • Interneurons: receive signals from sensory neurons and relay them within the brain and the spinal cord. Process information and pass signals to motor neurons.

  • Motor neurons: pass messages from the NS to other tissues in the body, such as muscles


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