Remittances real effective exchange and monetary policy
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Денежные переводы, реальный эффективный валютный курс и денежно-кредитная политика. Remittances, Real Effective Exchange, and Monetary Policy. Alexei Kireyev, IMF. Roadmap. 1. Macroeconomics of remittances 2. The impact on REER 3. Monetary policy response 4. International experience

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Remittances real effective exchange and monetary policy

Денежные переводы, реальный эффективный валютный курс и денежно-кредитная политика

Remittances, Real Effective Exchange, and Monetary Policy

Alexei Kireyev, IMF


Roadmap
Roadmap эффективный валютный курс и денежно-кредитная политика

1. Macroeconomics of remittances

2. The impact on REER

3. Monetary policy response

4. International experience

5. Conclusions



Remittances and the aggregate demand
Remittances and the aggregate demand particular aid

Current account (CAB)

Y=(C+I)p+(C+I)g+(X-M+NY+NCT)

Remittances are included in factor income (NY) and net current transfers (NCT). Call remittances R, other things being equal

Private sector balance

Public sector balance

Trade balance

Income


Macroeconomic implications of remittances depend on
Macroeconomic implications of remittances depend on particular aid

  • Their use: consumption, saving or investment

  • Their size relative to other balance of payment flows

  • Degree of their volatility

  • Their persistency: shock or a constant flow.


Impact of remittances on money supply and exchange rate
Impact of remittances on money supply and exchange rate particular aid

Case 2

Case 1

Case 3





The overall macro impact is mixed
The overall macro impact is mixed particular aid

  • No impact on money supply if saved outside banks; spent on imports or invested abroad

  • Increase in money supply if saved in banks in local or foreign currency; spent on consumption in local currency.

  • No impact on the exchange rate if saved in banks and outside banks in foreign currency; sent on imports, invested abroad or locally in foreign currency

  • Upward pressure on the exchange rate if saved in local currency in banks and outside banks; spent on consumption of local goods and services; and invested at home in local currency



Channels for reer appreciation
Channels for REER appreciation particular aid

  • Under a fixed exchange rate regime: inflation in non-traded goods and services

  • Under a flexible exchange rate regime: nominal exchange rate appreciation and some inflation in non-traded goods and services.



3 monetary policy response
3. Monetary policy response particular aid

Effective monetary policy

Fixed exchange rate

Trilemma

Ineffective monetary policy

Flexible exchange rate

Capital mobility



Options for monetary policy in case of reer appreciation
Options for monetary policy in case of REER appreciation particular aid

In case of a shock from remittances and a disruptive REER appreciation

  • resist nominal appreciation: intervene by purchasing foreign exchange to reserves

  • resist inflation in non-tradables:

    • sterilize money supply by selling securities

    • increase reserve requirements, part in foreign exchange

    • raise policy interest rates

      In case of a permanent flow of remittances and an orderly REER appreciation

  • do not intervene against fundamental trends

  • smooth extreme volatility of the nominal exchange rate by two-sided interventions

  • allow the nominal exchange rate adjust


Shortcomings of an active monetary policies in response to reer appreciation
Shortcomings of an active monetary policies in response to REER appreciation

  • Sterilization increases interest rates and therefore attacks addition foreign capital and accelerated REER appreciation

  • High interest rates and tight liquidity deprive the economy of the benefits of remittances inflow by hampering investment and growth

  • Sterilization can be costly to the Central Bank and discourage financial intermediation.


Reer appreciation is unlikely and monetary policy response may not be needed at all if
REER appreciation is unlikely and monetary policy response may not be needed at all if

  • remittances are predominantly spent on tradables (imports or transferred in kind)

  • inflow of remittances leads to reduced interest rate on external borrowing (if external creditors consider remittances as part of country’s wealth)

  • remittances is and established component of the current account and allow to suitably finance part of the trade deficit.


4 international experience
4. International experience may not be needed at all if

Have remittances actually led to the REER appreciation in some country?

  • Yes: Cape Verde(Bourdet, 2003), Pakistan (Hyder, 2005), Jordan (Petri, 2006), Dominican Rep, El Salvador, Guatemala (Izquierdo, 2006), panel of 13 LA countries (Amuedo, 2004)

  • No: Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua (Izquierdo, 2006) , sample of 15 Latin American countries (Rajan, 2005).

    Have the authorities actually undertaken active monetary policy measure in response to remittances?

  • Yes: El Salvador with mixed results, developing countries at large (Calvo et al., 1996)

  • No: Mexico (Riuz, 208), Tajikistan (Kireyev, 2006), seven Latin Amrican countries (Ball et al, 2009)

    Remittances influence the choice of the exchange rate regime (Singer, 2010)


5 conclusions
5. Conclusions may not be needed at all if

  • Impulsive and cyclical remittances may present significant challenges for macroeconomic management by destabilizing money supply and leading to REER appreciation above the equilibrium level. Active monetary policy is appropriate with the view to resist temporary REER appreciation in this case.

  • Orderly remittances, already included in the economic structure of receiving economy, should be treated as any other regular inflows, lead to a more appreciated level of the equilibrium REER, and generally do not pose problems for macroeconomic management. Active monetary policy is not needed in this case.

  • International evidences on whether remittances have posed serious problems for monetary and exchange rate policies are mixed but generally point to the fact the some REER appreciation should be expected.


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