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Youth Sports Do you know what the #1 reason children cite for their participation in a sports program? “to have fun” “ Winning the game ” ranks near the bottom of the list . Youth Sports Athletic endeavors that provide children and youth with a systematic sequence of practices and contests

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Do you know what the #1 reason children cite for their participation in a sports program?“to have fun” “Winning the game” ranks near the bottom of the list.


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Youth Sports participation in a sports program?

  • Athletic endeavors that provide children and youth with a systematic sequence of practices and contests

  • 39 million youth participate in nonschool sponsored programs

  • 7 million youth participate in interscholastic sports


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Youth Sports participation in a sports program?

Why are so many children involved?

  • Trend toward earlier participation

    • A 4-year-old holds the age group record for running a marathon

  • Increase in female participation

    • The number of interscholastic sports for girls has increased from 14 (1971) to 41 (1999)


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Youth Sports participation in a sports program?

Why are so many children involved?

  • Children are beginning to get involved in what used to be considered nontraditional sport activities

    • Tennis, cycling, bowling, ice hockey, cross-country skiing

  • Rule changes

    • Even the youngest child can experience success


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Youth Sports participation in a sports program?

Why are so many children involved?

  • There is an increased in the number of disabled children who participate

    • American Wheelchair Bowling Association

    • Handicapped Scuba Association

    • National Foundation of Wheelchair Tennis

    • National Wheelchair Softball Association

    • Special Olympics

    • United States Quad Rugby Association


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Youth Sports participation in a sports program?

  • Benefits of youth sport activities

    • Academic performance improvement

    • Physical fitness

    • Self-esteem enhancement

    • Deterrent to negative behavior


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Where Children participation in a sports program?Participate in Sports


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Most Popular Interscholastic Sports participation in a sports program?


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Why Children participation in a sports program?Participate in Sports

  • To have fun

  • To improve skills

  • To be with friends

  • To be part of a team

  • To experience excitement

  • To receive awards

  • To win

  • To become physically fit(Wankel & Kreisel, 1985)


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Why Children participation in a sports program?Participate in Sports

  • Wankel and Kreisel (1985)

    • Emphasis should be on involvement, skill development, and enjoyment of doing the skills

    • According to the children, winning and receiving rewards for playing are of secondary importance


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Why Children participation in a sports program?Participate in Sports


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Why Children Drop Out of Sports participation in a sports program?

  • Contrary to popular belief, children do not drop out of sports because of stress

  • More often, withdrawing from a sport is due to interpersonal problems

  • Pursue other leisure activities

  • Researchers report that a majority of “dropouts” reenter the same or new sport

    • Caution should be used when using the term “sport dropout”


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Why Children Drop Out of Sports participation in a sports program?


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Why Children Drop Out of Sports participation in a sports program?

“I would play again if”


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Sport Participation: Controversies participation in a sports program?

  • Medical Issues

    • Football

    • Baseball

    • Soccer

    • Downhill skiing

    • In-line skating

    • Overuse injuries

    • Are youth sports injuries avoidable?

    • Nutrition

    • Making weight


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Sport Participation: participation in a sports program?Controversies ~ Football

  • Football is classified as a contact/collision sport

  • Injury rate increases as players mature in age and grade level

  • 65% of the injuries occur in offensive players

  • However overall injury rate for youth football is low (~5%)


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Most prone injury sites participation in a sports program?

Hand/wrist

Knee

Shoulder/humerus

Most common injuries

Fractures

Epiphyseal fractures

Sprains

Contusions

Strains

Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Football


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Sport Participation: participation in a sports program?Controversies ~ Baseball

  • Relatively safe sport for youth

    • Two major injuries: chest and eye injuries

  • Chest trauma

    • Commotio cordis – batter struck in chest with pitched ball; catcher struck by foul tipped ball

    • Occurs more often in boys under 16 yr

    • 2-4 deaths reported each year


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Sport Participation: participation in a sports program?Controversies ~ Baseball

  • Eye injuries

    • Softer ball used because of the concern for commotio cordis

    • Fewer commotio cordis injuries result

    • However, physicians are concerned that a softer ball will allow more of the ball to enter the eye orbit, resulting in a greater number of eye injuries


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Sport Participation: participation in a sports program?Controversies ~ Soccer

  • Soccer is classified as a contact/collision sport

  • One of North America’s fastest growing sports

  • Studies suggest that youth soccer is a relatively safe activity

    • Most injuries are from person-to-person contact


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Sport Participation: participation in a sports program?Controversies ~ Soccer

  • Classic study (Nilsson & Roaas, 1978)

    • Examined injury rate from 1975-1977 in two tournaments (Norway Cup)

    • Ages: 11-18 yr

    • n= 25,000 youth

    • 2987 matches

    • 1343 injuries

    • Girls had a higher injury rate

      • Reason - lower skill development and training

      • Greater injury rate during final rounds

      • However, most injuries are minor


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Sport Participation: participation in a sports program?Controversies ~ Soccer

  • Heading the ball in soccer can result in

    • Headaches

      • 49% of players complained after heading a ball

    • Mild to severe deficits in attention

    • Problems with concentration

    • Mild to severe deficits in memory


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Common injury site participation in a sports program?

Thigh

Ankle

Foot

Torso

Head & neck

Type of injury

Contusions

Muscle strains

Sprains

Fractures

Heat illness

Concussions

Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer


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Cause of injury participation in a sports program?

Person-to person contact

43%

Repetitive overload

20.4%

Contact with ground

17.5%

Contact with goal post, etc.

6.5%

Effect of injury

Missed one game

38.5%

Missed all remaining games

19.3%

Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer


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Sport Participation: participation in a sports program?Controversies ~ Soccer

  • How can soccer injuries be reduced?

    • Closer officiating

    • Pregame warnings for playing tactics (take downs, hacking)

    • Coaching within the spirit of the rules

    • Protective padding for players and goal posts

    • Remove all sideline objects (chairs, water coolers, etc.)


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Sport Participation: participation in a sports program?Controversies ~ Downhill Skiing

  • Classified as a limited contact/impact sport

  • Injury occurs due to contact with ground or stationary object

    • Contact usually occurs at a high velocity

  • Girls are more prone to injury than boys

  • Injury rate increases up to age 13 yr of age

  • Injury rate levels off between age 13 and 15 yr


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Sport Participation: participation in a sports program?Controversies ~ Downhill Skiing

  • Out of 3456 participants, 423 injuries reported

  • Most of the injuries occurred in 12 and 13 year olds

  • Common injuries

    • 51.0% ~ sprains

    • 11.1% ~ fractures

(Garrick & Requa, 1979)


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Sport Participation: participation in a sports program?Controversies ~ In-line Skating

  • Fastest growing recreational sport in the US

  • Excessive speed is the main cause for injury (speeds of 30 mph are not uncommon)

  • 35% of all falls result in injury

  • 60% of all injury occurs in youth between 10 and 14 years of age


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Sport Participation: participation in a sports program?Controversies ~ In-line Skating

  • Prevention of injuries

    • Players should wear all protective gear available to them

      • Wrist guards

      • Elbow pads

      • Knee pads

      • Helmet

  • Often, children do not use protective equipment because discomfort, cost, and unsightly appearance


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Sport Participation: participation in a sports program?Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries

  • Youth are specializing in sport at earlier ages which involves year round training

  • Overuse injuries occur as a result of placing the body under repeated stress over a long period of time

  • Common sites: epiphyseal plates, cartilage of the apophyses, articular cartilage, stress fractures


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Little Hercules participation in a sports program?

Sandrak Website


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“Ironically, there are child labor laws in many countries that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries

  • Traction apophyses injuries

    • Osgood-Schlatter disease

      • Insertion of the patellar tendon at the tibial tubercle

    • Sever’s disease

      • Insertion of the Achilles tendon into the calcaneous

  • Both injuries occur because the skeleton is growing faster than soft tissue elongation


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries

  • Little League elbow

    • Repeated stress to the medial and lateral structures of the elbow

  • Rule changes are designed to protect the young pitcher

    • T-ball, ball is not pitched to the batter

    • Some leagues no longer allow the curve ball

    • Limit the number of innings/wk that a young player may pitch


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries

  • Significant increase in Runner’s knee injuries

    • Inappropriate tracking of the kneecap


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ Avoidable?

  • Make sure young athletes have been properly conditioned

  • Avoid overtraining

  • Provide qualified adult supervision

  • Change rules to create a safe environment

  • Match competitors according to body size and weight


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ Avoidable?

  • Require use of appropriate safety equipment

  • Do not allow an injured child to return to competition until the injury has been fully rehabilitated

  • Do not allow children to partake in questionable practices designed to create a competitive edge

  • Use coaches who are certified

  • National Center for Sports Safety

    • Online certification course


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ Nutrition

  • Child’s appetite should dictate need

  • The practice of fasting (wrestling) and quick weight gain (football) should be avoided

  • Vitamin supplements are not necessary when the young athlete is eating a balanced meal


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ Making Weight

  • Some adults have used unacceptable practices to give their child a competitive edge

    • Exercising in a sauna

    • Not letting child drink water

    • Not allowing child to swallow spit

    • Administering diuretics

    • Exercising in a rubber suit

    • Fasting


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ Making Weight

Dangers of rapid dehydration

  • Cells, urine output, blood volume and sweating mechanisms do not function properly

  • 3% weight loss will decrease physical performance

  • 5% weight loss can lead to heat exhaustion

  • 7% weight loss can lead to hallucinations

  • 10% weight loss can lead to heat stroke and circulatory collapse


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Sport Participation: Controversies that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

  • Psychological issues

    • Stress

      • Unpleasant emotional state

    • Reducing competitive stress

  • Are young athletes being exposed to too much competitive stress?


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ Stress

Model depicting the development of stress and potential behavioral outcomes

Consequences

Withdraw and try a new

sport; Withdraw

permanently

Situation

Individual views outcome as important

Emotional Response

Unfavorable appraisal

leads to physiological

and cognitive stress

Appraisal

Individual evaluates his/her

ability to meet the demands

of the situation

Passer, 1982


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ Another Viewpoint

  • Youth sport participation is not the only stress encountered in the daily life of a young person

  • Precompetitive state anxiety

    • Study by Simon & Marten (1979)

    • 468 children in youth sports

    • 281 children who competed in a physical education softball game, school test, group competition in band, and band solo competition


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ State Anxiety

Result: note the greatest level of precompetitive state anxiety is for band solo students

Children’s precompetitive state anxiety in 11 sport activities.

The precompetitive state anxiety scale ranges from 10-30.


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ Reducing Stress

  • Change something about the sport so that success occurs more often than failure

    • T-ball uses stationary batting tee instead of a pitcher

  • Skill training instills confidence

    • More time should be spent on teaching and less time on scrimmaging


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Sport Participation: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Controversies ~ Reducing Stress

  • Children who perceive themselves as competent are less threatened and perform better

  • Winning/losing should be placed in perspective

    • Child may feel that he/she has disappointed parents or coach

  • Help child set realistic goals


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Youth Sport Coaching that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

  • Who’s coaching our children?

    • mostly volunteers

      • 90% lack the necessary formal preparation to coach

    • 9 out of 10 volunteer coaches are men

  • Safe on First

    • An organization designed to run background checks on those who coach children in US

    • Sex offenders, criminal record, etc.


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Youth Sport Coaching that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

  • Why do people volunteer?

    • Involvement of coach's child in league

    • Personal enjoyment

    • Skill development of players

    • Character development of players

    • Personal challenge


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Youth Sport Coaching - Education that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

  • The annual turnover rate for coaches is 50%

  • There is a rise in the number of lawsuits directed toward youth sport coaches and organizations because of alleged negligence during practices and games


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Youth Sport Coaching - Education that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

  • The National Standards for Athletic Coaches (US)

  • National Coaching Certification Program (Canada)

  • Technological advances now allow educators to reach more potential youth sport coaches to obtain coaching education and certification


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Youth Sport Coaching that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

  • Arguments against mandatory coaching certification

    • Due to the increase in participation, more sport offerings are required, and therefore, additional coaches are needed

    • Demand for coaches exceeds supply

      • Programs may have to be cut

    • Certification process is expensive


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Youth Sport Coaching that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”


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Parental Education: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Curbing Violence

  • There has been a significant increase in violent behavior from parents during the last 15 years

    • Occurrences range from attacks to murder


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Parental Education: that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”Curbing Violence

  • Organizations are requiring parental education

    • Sportsmanship training

    • Parents Association for Youth Sports (PAYS)

  • Parent beats a volunteer coach to death in front of his children after a youth ice hockey game for ten year olds


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Bill of Rights of Young Athletes that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”


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Correlates of PA in youth that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

  • Individual

    • Demographic factors

    • Psychological factors

    • Social factors

  • Environmental

    • Opportunity

    • Accessibility

    • Safety

    • Aesthetics


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Sex that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

Family Income

Age

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual

    • Demographic factors

    • Psychological factors

    • Social factors

  • Environmental

    • Opportunity

    • Accessibility

    • Safety

    • Aesthetics


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Sex that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (WHO, 2002)


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Family Income that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

Estabrooks & Gyurcsik (2000)


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Age that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”


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Enjoyment that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

Self-efficacy

Self-esteem

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual

    • Demographic factors

    • Psychological factors

    • Social factors

  • Environmental

    • Opportunity

    • Accessibility

    • Safety

    • Aesthetics


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Peers that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

Family

Coaches/Others

Cultural constraints

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual

    • Demographic factors

    • Psychological factors

    • Social factors

  • Environmental

    • Opportunity

    • Accessibility

    • Safety

    • Aesthetics


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Sidewalks that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

Parks

Local Clubs/Teams

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual

    • Demographic factors

    • Psychological factors

    • Social factors

  • Environmental

    • Opportunity

    • Accessibility

    • Safety

    • Aesthetics


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Cost that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

Pollution

Bike Lanes

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual

    • Demographic factors

    • Psychological factors

    • Social factors

  • Environmental

    • Opportunity

    • Accessibility

    • Safety

    • Aesthetics


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Crime/Violence that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

Lighting

Traffic

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual

    • Demographic factors

    • Psychological factors

    • Social factors

  • Environmental

    • Opportunity

    • Accessibility

    • Safety

    • Aesthetics


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Friendly that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

Trees/Flowers

Traffic

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual

    • Demographic factors

    • Psychological factors

    • Social factors

  • Environmental

    • Opportunity

    • Accessibility

    • Safety

    • Aesthetics


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Correlates of PA in youth that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

  • Individual

    • Demographic factors

    • Psychological factors

    • Social factors

  • Environmental

    • Opportunity

    • Accessibility

    • Safety

    • Aesthetics


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Correlates of PA in youth that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”

  • Individual

    • Demographic factors

    • Psychological factors

    • Social factors

  • Environmental

    • Opportunity

    • Accessibility

    • Safety

    • Aesthetics

Built Environment


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