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Wildlife Policy PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Wildlife Policy Wildlife Commodification (Fishing, Hunting, Nature) Ivory billed woodpeckers, Flying Asian carp, & Biotechnology Ambivalence Who is in charge? What are we talking about? Where are they(?) located? How do we treat them?

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Wildlife Policy

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Wildlife policy l.jpg

Wildlife Policy

Wildlife Commodification (Fishing, Hunting, Nature)

Ivory billed woodpeckers, Flying Asian carp, & Biotechnology


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Ambivalence

  • Who is in charge?

  • What are we talking about?

  • Where are they(?) located?

  • How do we treat them?

  • Wildlife owned by the state in its sovereign capacity "in trust for the public”

  • Personal property - when killed, also pets, vermin

  • A Guide to the Laws and Treaties of the United States for Protecting Migratory Birds (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

  • Importation of Pets and other animals into the United States (Center for Disease Control)


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Spectrum of Ambivalence

  • Individuals ----- Species (Populations) -------- Assemblages

  • Domesticated – Feral – Commensals ---------------------- Wild

  • Urban ---------- Agricultural --------- Forestry ----- Wilderness

  • Hunting/Fishing ------------------------------- Livestock

  • Zoos

  • Research animals

  • New Life Forms

  • Game - non-game - fur-bearing - threatened or endangered - exotic or invasive


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Legal/Ethical Rights of Non-Humans

  • Animal Rights (Wikipedia)

  • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

  • Animal Rights (Gary L. Francione, Rutgers University)

  • Should trees have standing? Christopher Stone

  • A Wilderness Bill of Rights William O Douglas

  • John F. Reiger, American Sportsmen and the Origins of Conservation (Univ. of Okla. Press ed. 1986)

  • George Bird Grinnell & Charles Sheldon eds Hunting and Conservation (New York Arno Press 1970)

  • The Commodification of Wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (Shannon Bowen)

  • Commodification of Nature (Wildwilderness.org)

  • Commodifying what nature? Noel Castree


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Ownership of Nature

  • Thomas A. Lund, British Wildlife Law Before the American Revolution: Lessons From The Past, 74 MICH. L. REV. 49, 53-55 (1975)

  • Thomas A. Lund, Early American Wildlife Law, 51 N.Y.U. L. REV. 703, 719 (1976)

  • James A. Tober Who Owns the Wildlife? (1981)

  • Who owns the animals? (Montanans for Multiple Use)

  • Who owns wildlife? (Paul Matthews)

  • Who owns the seeds? (Wildlifegardeners.org)


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A Production Spectrum


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Land & Water Base for Wildlife

  • Public

  • Federal

  • State

  • Local Government – county, municipality

  • Private

  • Individual

  • Corporations

    • Public

    • Private

    • Nonprofit


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USDA Forest Service


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  • Public Land

  • National Parks

  • State Public Lands (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources)

  • Regional Parks (Metropolitan Council)

  • County Lands (Dakota County)

  • Private Land - preserve areas and regulate activities

  • Agriculture

  • Forests

  • Special – prairie remnants, wetlands, golf courses, vacant land, urban areas


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US Department of the Interior

  • Bureau of Land Management - 261 million surface acres

  • National Park System - 83.6 million acres (4.3 million acres privately owned)

  • Maps of Parks & Monuments (University of Texas)

  • Public Use Statistics

  • Fish & Wildlife Service – 93 million acres


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USDA

  • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service - species

  • Natural Resources Conservation Service - habitats

  • United States  Minnesota

  • Cultivated 20.6% 42.0%                    

  • Grass    26.9%                9.2%

  • Forests    33.0%               26.7%

  • Other     19.9%               21.1%


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Some Sort of an Organizing Theme

  • Commerce clause

  • Treaty making power

  • Endangered Species Act

  • Property Clause

  • Hunting & Fishing

  • Patenting lifeforms


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Federal Policy

  • Title 16 United States Code Conservation

  • Federal Wildlife Law of the 20th Century (Center for Wildlife Law)

  • Animal Welfare Act (National Agricultural Library)

  • Animal and Veterinary (Federal Drug Administration

  • Title 50 Code of Federal Regulations Wildlife and Fisheries

  • U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

  • National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA)

  • Marine Mammal Commission

  • Center for Wildlife Law (University of New Mexico)

  • Fish, Game & Wildlife Law (Megalaw.com)


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Other Federal Agencies

  • Agricultural Research Service

  • Bureau of Land Management

  • USDA Natural Resources and Environment

  • US Botanic Garden

  • US Army Corps of Engineers

  • Council on Environmental Quality

  • Environmental Protection Agency

  • Forest Service

  • Marine Mammal Commission

  • National Park Service

  • National Science Foundation


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Land Use in the United States


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WetlandsSolid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v US Army Corps of Engineers


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Migration Between Jurisdictions

  • A Guide to the Laws and Treaties of the United States for Protecting Migratory Birds (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

  • Animal Importation (Center for Disease Control)

  • Invasive species (National Agricultural Library)

  • Invasive species (Fish and Wildlife Service)

  • Invasive Species (Union of Concerned Scientists)

  • Invasive.org

  • Invasive Species in the Great Lakes

  • Court will not hear case to close locks (The Badger Herald


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Endangered Species Program (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

  • Statutory Law (16 USC 1531 et seq)

  • Administrative Law (50 CFR 17)

  • Case Law (Hill v Tennessee Valley Authority437 US 153, 1978)

  • The Endangered Species Act (FindLaw)


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American Alligator

  • American Alligator (National Parks Conservation Association)

  • American Alligator (US Fish & Wildlife Service)


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Timber Wolf

  • Timber Wolf Information Network

  • Timber Wolf in Wisconsin

  • Timber Wolf in Minnesota

  • Timber Wolf in Michigan

  • Timber Wolf (Fish and Wildlife Service)

  • Wolf Recovery, Political Ecology and Endangered Species (The Independent Institute)


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America's National Wildlife Refuge System


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National Wildlife Refuge System (Fish and Wildlife Service)

  • 542 national wildlife refuges, at least one in every state

  • Includes over 93 million acres of land

  • Most national wildlife refuges are strategically located along the major bird migration corridors,

  • Hundreds are home to endangered species, while others host big game - caribou, buffalo, deer, and elk

  • History of the NWR System (Fish and Wildlife Service)

  • History of the National Wildlife Refuge System (Wikipedia)


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Region 3 Midwest - National Wildlife Refuges

  • Agassiz

  • Big Stone

  • Crane Meadows

  • Glacial Ridge

  • Hamden Slough

  • Mille Lacs

  • Minnesota Valley

  • Northern Tallgrass Prairie

  • Rice Lake

  • Rydell

  • Sherburne

  • Tamarac

  • Upper Mississippi


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Region 3 Midwest – Wetland Management Districts

  • Detroit Lakes

  • Fergus Falls

  • Litchfield

  • Morris

  • Windom


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Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife & Fish Refuge

  • Established: 1924

  • 16 USC 721 et seq

  • Approx. 240,000 acres

  • Refuge covers 261 miles of the Mississippi River Valley from Wabasha, Minn., to Rock Island, Ill., and is divided into four districts

  • The refuge includes land owned by both the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 19 counties across four states


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Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge


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Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

  • October 8, 1976, P.L. 94-466 90 Stat. 1992

  • June 25, 1984, P.L. 98-32798 Stat. 270

  • Oct. 7 1998 H.R.4729 Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge Protection Act of 1998

  • March 25 1999 H.R.1284 Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge Protection Act of 1999

  • Wikipedia

  • Refuge Planning

  • Environmental Assessment (EPA)

  • Friends of the Minnesota Valley


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Minnesota

  • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

  • Scientific & Natural Areas

  • Private Lands Program

  • Minnesota Endangered Species Program

  • Minnesota Department of Agriculture


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Environmental Nonprofits

  • Natural Resources Defense Council

  • Resources for the Future

  • Environmental Defense Fund

  • Worldwatch Institute

  • American Farmland Trust

  • National Wildlife Federation

  • Izaak Walton League

  • Sierra Club

  • The Wilderness Society

  • Union of Concerned Scientists


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Genetically Modified Organisms

  • Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980)

  • Breaking the Law of Life (Resurgence)

  • Lifeform Patenting

  • Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms (Human Genome Project)

  • Liability and Labeling of Genetically Modified Organisms

  • Genetically Modified Organisms (Aglaw)

  • Genetics Society of America, Statement on Genetically Modified Organisms

  • Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview Biotechnology: An Overview

  • GM Organisms (New Scientist)

  • GMOs at the FAO

  • Dolly the Sheep

  • Life Form Patenting and Family-Scale Agriculture: Implications and Recommendations (Center for Rural Affairs)


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