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TRANSFER OF LEARNING. ITE-695. Transfer of Training Why Important. U.S. Spends billions on human resource development An estimated 80% of HRD not fully applied thereby wasted Improving transfer of training must become HRD’s top priority. Nature Of Learning.

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Transfer of training why important
Transfer of TrainingWhy Important

  • U.S. Spends billions on human resource development

  • An estimated 80% of HRD not fully applied thereby wasted

  • Improving transfer of training must become HRD’s top priority


Nature of learning
Nature Of Learning

  • Learning inferred from before/after behavior comparison

  • Learning starts with an instigation of behavior--a stimulus acting on an organism to bring about a response

  • Training is the management of learning


Learning process five varieties of outcomes
Learning ProcessFive varieties of outcomes

  • Intellectual skill

  • Cognitive strategy

  • Verbal Information

  • Motor skill

  • Attitude


Principles of learning
Principles Of Learning

  • Reinforcement-Reward

  • Knowledge of Results-Feedback

  • Motivation-Desire to learn

  • Distribution of Practice-Scheduling training sessions over time

  • Whole versus Part Learning-complexity and organization level dependant

  • Transfer of Learning-Psychological fidelity


Learning curves
Learning Curves

  • Job-related learning is depicted with learning curves showing cumulative changes in criteria that occur over time

  • The form shape and length of learning curves vary

  • The relative degree of improvement in learning is greater for more difficult jobs


Principles of transfer
Principles of Transfer

  • Incremental steps

  • Defined outcomes

  • Learner engaged

  • Reinforcement

  • Cue Learner

  • Shape Response


Barriers to transfer
Barriers To Transfer

  • Executive Barriers

  • Trainer Barriers

  • Trainee Barriers


Executive barriers
Executive Barriers

1. Lack of Involvement = 71%

2. Top Centered = 51%

3. Lack of Participation = 21%

4. Unrealistic Expectations = 17%


Trainer barriers
Trainer Barriers

1. Lack of Reinforcement

2. Work Interference

3. Non-Supportive Culture

4. Impractical Programs

5. Irrelevant Training

6. Discomfort with Change

7. Trainer Support

8. Poorly Designed Material

9. Peer Pressure to Resist Change


Trainee barriers
Trainee Barriers

1. Lack of Reinforcement on the job

2. Impractical Training

3. Lack of support from Trainer

4. Poorly Designed Training

5. Peer pressure to resist

6. Non-supportive Culture


Timing Of Barriers To Transfer

Dominant Timing Barrier

Before During After __________________________________

1 Lack of reinforcement on the job

2 1 Interference from immediate (work) environment

1 2 2 Non supportive organizational culture

1 Trainees’ perception of impractical training

1 Trainees’ perception of irrelevant training content

2 2 1 Trainees’ discomfort with change and effort needed

1 Separation from support of the trainer

1 Trainees’ perception of poorly designed/delivered trn’g

2 1 Pressure from peers to resist change

Key: 1 = primary time of impact; 2 = secondary time of impact


Source Of Barriers To Transfer

Dominant Sources Barrier

Trainee Trainer Mgr Organ_______________________________________________

2 1 2 Lack of reinforcement on the job

2 1 Interference from immediate (work) environment

1 Non supportive organizational culture

2 1 2 Trainees’ perception of impractical training

2 1 2 Trainees’ perception of irrelevant training content

1 2 Trainees’ discomfort with change and effort needed

2 2 1 Separation from support of the trainer

2 1 2 2 Trainees’ perception of poorly designed/delivered trn’g

2 1 Pressure from peers to resist change

Key 1 = primary responsibility ; 2 = secondary responsibility


Managing transfer of training
Managing Transfer of Training

  • Strategic Planning-anessentialprocess

  • HRD-a strategic resource within the process

  • The trainer as manager of transfer


Transfer manager roles
Transfer Manager Roles

  • Manager of Transfer of Training

    • Advocates for transfer to organization

    • Initiates transfer partnerships with managers and trainees

    • Manages implementation of transfer strategies

  • Strategic Resource

    • Links HRD efforts to organization strategic goals

    • Shares performance improvement decisions with management

  • Expert HRD Resource

    • Demonstrates expertise in HRD technologies and practices

    • Demonstrates expertise in consulting skills supporting organizational change

      (Broad & Newstrom, 1992)


Training design overview
Training Design Overview

  • Needs and goals assessment

  • Use a view of Principles of Learning

  • Use a view of the Principles of transfer

  • Design strategies to achieve a high level of transfer of training

  • Engage managers, trainers, and trainees in a partnership sharing the supportive roles

  • Evaluate before, during, and after training effects


Saturn case study application of principles of transfer
Saturn Case StudyApplication of Principles of Transfer


  • Manager

  • Trainer

  • Trainee


  • Saturn Goal: To create, maintain, and improve organizational effectiveness

    • Organizational effectiveness need met

    • Short-term and long-term business objectives met

    • Saturn mission fulfilled

    Transfer-of-Training Partnership

    By meeting the growth and development needs of team members, teams, and Saturn

    Part I: Transfer Principles Matrix

    Team need met

    Individual need met

    Part II: Role-Specific Transfer Matrix

    Through anticipation, prevention, and remedy of learning and motivational deficiencies

    New knowledge and skill applied

    Part III: Mentoring Principles Matrix

    Team member willing and able

    Effective training programs

    Saturn Transfer-of-Training Model

    Inputs

    Processes

    Outputs

    Barriers

    1. Lack of reinforcement

    2. Interference from work environment

    3. Non supportive culture

    4. Impractical, irrelevant training

    5. Poor planning

    6. Poor design and development

    7. Poor delivery

    8. Lack of continual training improvement


    Saturn role specific transfer matrix trainer b efore during after
    Saturn Role-specific Transfer Matrix effectivenessTrainerBefore During After_______


    Saturn role specific matrix trainee
    Saturn Role-specific Matrix effectivenessTrainee


    References
    References: effectiveness

    Broad, M.L. & Newstrom, J.W. (1992). Transfer of training.

    Indianapolis, IN: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

    McCormick, E.J. & Ilgan, D.R. (1942/1980). Industrial

    psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Phillips, J.J., & Broad, M.L. (1997). Transferring learning to the

    workplace . Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and

    Development.


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