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The Revolution in Science Education Stages of revolution Diversity and the revolution The Summer Institute and the revolution Nature of the Revolution in Science Education From teaching to learning From passive to active From facts to concepts From uniformity to diversity

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The Revolution in Science Education

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The Revolution in Science Education

  • Stages of revolution

  • Diversity and the revolution

  • The Summer Institute and the revolution


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Nature of the Revolution in Science Education

  • From teaching to learning

  • From passive to active

  • From facts to concepts

  • From uniformity to diversity

  • From individualistic to cooperative

  • From private to public

  • From random action to scholarship


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Origins of the Revolution in Science Education

  • AAAS “Science for All Americans”

  • National Research Council “From Analysis to Action”

  • National Academy of Sciences “Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers”

  • National Research Council “Bio2010”


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Sobering Facts

  • Widespread biological illiteracy

  • Inability of biology students to engage in conceptual and analytical thinking

  • Poor retention (10-20% lecture content)

  • Exit of students from college biology majors


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THE CRISIS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION

Predicted shortfall of 600,000 scientists/engineers

60% of college science majors switch to non-science

33% of minority students plan on science major

minorities = 14% of college population

receive 8% of BS degrees in science

receive 4% of doctoral degrees in science


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WHY STUDENTS LEAVE SCIENCE

Tobias, S. 1990 They’re not dumb, they’re different.

climate, facts vs. concepts, what vs. why

Hewitt, N. and Seymour, E. 1991.

poor teaching, no support; weed-out mentality

Malcolm, S. 1991 and other studies.

atmosphere, discrimination, alienation, exclusiveness

NOT THE ANSWER: lack of intelligence, personal problems, laziness, poor TAs


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The Greatest Fears……

  • Are we losing better minds than we are retaining?

  • Are we losing “different” thinkers?

  • Are we losing the most curious students?

  • Are we reducing the diversity of scientists with our teaching methods and attitudes?


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Recommendations from AAASScience for All Americans

reduce amount of material

present science as social enterprise

methods must be proven -- use inquiry; engage students

place premium on curiosity/creativity

educational reform must be comprehensive

reform must be collaborative


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Recommendations from “From Analysis to Action”

  • Capture the spirit of “that thing we call science” in the classroom

  • Engage students in research

  • Recognize diverse cognitive styles

  • Train the next generation of teachers to teach using proven methods


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Proven Teaching Methods

  • Cooperative learning

  • Inquiry-based learning


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BRIEF HISTORY OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING

Deutsch, M. 1949 Coop learning fosters:

interdependence, achievement pressure

higher productivity, more ideas

Okebukola, P.A. 1984 1,025 9th graders

Cooperative mode--intellectual achievement

Competitive mode--practical lab skills

Johnson, D.W. et al. 1981 -- 122 studies

Cooperative = higher achievement

higher order thinking

Swisher, K. and others in the 1990s

Cooperative learning = higher achievement

Native Americans (Navajo, Cherokee)

African Americans

Female Americans


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Inquiry-based learning in biology

Purposes

involve students in scientific process

students construct their own knowledge

students shape agenda of the classroom

build sense of shared purpose


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The Revolution in Science Education

  • Stages of revolution

  • Diversity and the revolution

  • The Summer Institute and the revolution


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Why diversity?

  • Moral imperative to educate broadly

  • Complexion of science should match the future workforce

  • Creativity is generated by diversity

  • Students receive a better education in diverse community

    Smith et al., 1997


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Types of diversity

  • Cognitive diversity

  • Ethnic and gender

    • cultural and experiential differences

    • prejudice and assumption


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Number of Groupdescribed species

viruses 1,000

bacteria 4,760

fungi 46,983

plants 48,428

insects 751,000

birds 9,040

mammals 4,000

TOTAL 1,392,485

_______________________

NRC Report on Biological Diversity


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www.whyfiles.org

#1 Science Web Site

Yahoo “Top Ten”


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Walking on water The simple water strider[12 Feb 1998]

Vilifying a virile virus


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Comments on the Why Files…..from postdocs and graduate students in “Teaching Biology”

  • “edit the writing to make it sound like scientific language”

  • “cut the humor – science is serious”

  • “I hate The Why Files”


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Cognitive Diversity

  • Expand our notion of good science teaching

  • Expand our notion of who can be a scientist

  • Accept that our students are not us


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Types of diversity

  • Cognitive diversity

  • Ethnic and gender

    • cultural and experiential differences

    • prejudice and assumption


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Prejudices and AssumptionsA series of double blind experiments:

  • Calls for interviews based on ethnicity of name on resume Bertrand and Mullainathan, 2002

  • Hiring and gender/race Dovidio & Gaertner, 2000 Olian et al., 1988)

  • Attribution of success to talent vs. luck and gender/attractiveness Deaux and Emswiller, 1974

  • Rating job performance and gender Martell, 1991

    In all experiments, gender of evaluator did not influence evaluation


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Accommodate diverse people and cognitive styles

  • Evaluate our own prejudices and assumptions about people and learning styles

  • Incorporate inquiry-based learning and cooperative learning into the college biology curriculum

  • Educate new teachers to use these teaching methods


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Summer Institute*

  • Model the principles of active learning and experimentation, provide “toolbox” and peer network

    * Proposed in BIO2010; pilot supported by NRC and HHMI


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Overview of workshop

  • Topics

    • Active learning in lectures/discussions

    • Active learning in laboratories

    • Interactive self-taught modules

    • Fostering systemic change

  • Format

    • Model teaching methods, participants design new applications

    • Brainstorming in groups


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Products from this workshop

  • Exchange of teaching methods

  • New applications of these methods

  • Evaluation of format and content

  • Ideas about generating systemic change


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You are our experiment

  • Is this the most effective format?

  • Have we chosen the most important topics?

  • Bring together the experts


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Experts in Innovative Pedagogy and Assessment

Diane Ebert-May

Liz Armstrong


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Creative Mavericks in Science Education

Paul Williams

(and Fast Plants)

Bob Full

(and friends)


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Creative Mavericks in Science Education

Graham Walker

Bob Goldberg

Derrick Tabor

Peter Bruns


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Humorists

Jack Kampmeier

Jim Gentile


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Humorists

Jim Gentile (the real one)

Jack Kampmeier

…and his amazing jumping hamsters


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Interactive Technologies

This is not John Jungck

(but it’s from his web page)

Richard Cyr

Ron Hoy

(He’s always evolving)

Mike Klymkowski


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History Makers…..

Daniel Klionsky

National Science Foundation Distinguished Teaching Scholar


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Leaders in Reports on Science Education

Diane Ebert-May

Bob DeHaan

Millard Susman

Lillian Tong

Kerry Brenner

Bob Yuan

Amy Chang


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Textbook Authors

Robert Beichner

David Nelson


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Review Panel(guinea pigs)

Laura Knoll

Francisco Pelegri

Christopher Day


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