The Physics of Climate and Climate Change. A/Professor Michael Box Dr. Gail Box School of Physics, UNSW. Radiation and Climate Thermal radiation laws The Greenhouse Effect Global energy budget Simple models Climate Forcing Aerosol and gas forcings Feedback Mechanisms
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A/Professor Michael Box
Dr. Gail Box
School of Physics, UNSW
Watts per square metre
Here is the Stephen-Boltzmann constant.
For a body which is not ‘black’, we may interpret this temperature as an ‘effective temperature’.
where we have used F = 1368 Wm-2 and α = 0.3.
Energy balance at the surface, and at the top-of-atmosphere, givesWhen these equations are solved for the two temperatures we obtainTa = 255 KTg = 300 K = 27 CThis time it is a little too warm, but it is an improvement.
For radiative balance: gives
Incoming absorbed = Outgoing emitted
In atmospheric layer
aE + eTg4 = 2eTa4
(1 – a – )E + eTa4 = eTg4
Solve the simultaneous equations for two unknowns.
These shiptracks, seen from space, are an example of the indirect effect. Ships sailing beneath these clouds have released particles which have seeded them with more CCN, creating lines of enhanced reflectivity.
Climate models: impossible dream? indirect effect.
There will always be processes missing from the models, and for a variety of reasons: