REALISM AND NATURALISM . Realism in the TheatreFaithful, objective representation of social and historical
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1. REALISM AND Naturalism Realism emerges from the mid-19th-century demand that every field of knowledge and all human endeavours become more sensitive to the needs of the time.
Causes for emergence of Realism and Naturalism:
Charles Darwin (1809-1882), The Origin of Species
heredity and environment
Realism is the application of the belief, to arts and literature, that the truth of everything can be confirmed by scientific inquiry.
3. REALISM AND NATURALISM Principles of Realism:
1. Realism provides a truthful representation of the real world. -- Problematical….
2. Realism is based on direct observation of contemporary life and manners
3. Like a true scientist, the author must be impersonal in his attitude towards his subject matter
Most common charges against realism:
1 . In avoiding the ideal, realism limits itself to the ugly and the trivial
2. Realism emphasizes external detail only
3. Realism is completely materialistic
4. Realism emphasizes sensualism and fatalism and is morally indifferent or positively immoral in outlook.
4. REALISM AND NATURALISM Precursors of Realism:
Special effect plays (melodramas)
Gas light and electrical light
Limitations of Realism:
Spectacle and illusionistic detail was often extraneous to the drama
Spectacles were never sordid
Painted, two-dimensional settings
In true Realism, agents act as they do because they are products of heredity and environment.
5. REALISM AND NATURALISM Naturalism:
‘Exaggerated’ from of realism
Reaction against popular theatre of C19 (melodrama, vaudeville, well-made plays)
Preoccupation with ugly and squalid (based on deterministic view of people)
What does it mean for…
Small group of characters
Emphasis on observation (test-tube like process)
Avoid ‘dramatic’ scenes
New subject matter, new characters
Focus on motivation and environmental conditions
6. REALISM AND NATURALISM Focus on ‘ordinary’ people
Complex individuals with conflicting drives
Victims of circumstance
External aspects foregrounded
"The characters of a [naturalistic] drama should all act independently of the volition of the dramatist, in accordance with the laws of their individual natures and social environment; they must follow the inspiration of their own destiny, and not that of another destiny arbitrarily imposed upon them by the writer." (Maxim Gorki)
natural everyday speech, dialect
ungrammatical, fragmentary, and disturbingly frank....
no asides, soliloquies
7. REALISM AND NATURALISM Setting:
Show environment which shapes characters
Three-dimensional sets (box set)
8. REALISM AND NATURALISM Ibsen and his birthplace
9. REALISM AND NATURALISM August Strindberg
10. REALISM AND NATURALISM Gerhart Hauptmann
11. Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre
12. Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre
13. Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre
14. Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre
15. Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre
16. Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre