REALISM AND Naturalism

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REALISM AND Naturalism

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1. REALISM AND Naturalism Realism emerges from the mid-19th-century demand that every field of knowledge and all human endeavours become more sensitive to the needs of the time. Causes for emergence of Realism and Naturalism: Industrial Revolution Urbanization Scientific developments Charles Darwin (1809-1882), The Origin of Species heredity and environment Determinism Realism is the application of the belief, to arts and literature, that the truth of everything can be confirmed by scientific inquiry.

3. REALISM AND NATURALISM Principles of Realism: 1. Realism provides a truthful representation of the real world. -- Problematical…. 2. Realism is based on direct observation of contemporary life and manners 3. Like a true scientist, the author must be impersonal in his attitude towards his subject matter Most common charges against realism: 1 . In avoiding the ideal, realism limits itself to the ugly and the trivial 2. Realism emphasizes external detail only 3. Realism is completely materialistic 4. Realism emphasizes sensualism and fatalism and is morally indifferent or positively immoral in outlook.

4. REALISM AND NATURALISM Precursors of Realism: Picture-frame stage Special effect plays (melodramas) Gas light and electrical light Limitations of Realism: Spectacle and illusionistic detail was often extraneous to the drama Spectacles were never sordid Painted, two-dimensional settings In true Realism, agents act as they do because they are products of heredity and environment.

5. REALISM AND NATURALISM Naturalism: ‘Exaggerated’ from of realism Reaction against popular theatre of C19 (melodrama, vaudeville, well-made plays) Preoccupation with ugly and squalid (based on deterministic view of people) What does it mean for… Plot: Small group of characters Emphasis on observation (test-tube like process) Avoid ‘dramatic’ scenes New subject matter, new characters Character: Focus on motivation and environmental conditions

6. REALISM AND NATURALISM Focus on ‘ordinary’ people Complex individuals with conflicting drives Victims of circumstance External aspects foregrounded "The characters of a [naturalistic] drama should all act independently of the volition of the dramatist, in accordance with the laws of their individual natures and social environment; they must follow the inspiration of their own destiny, and not that of another destiny arbitrarily imposed upon them by the writer." (Maxim Gorki) Language: natural everyday speech, dialect ungrammatical, fragmentary, and disturbingly frank.... no asides, soliloquies

7. REALISM AND NATURALISM Setting: Show environment which shapes characters Significant trifles Three-dimensional sets (box set) "fourth wall"

8. REALISM AND NATURALISM Ibsen and his birthplace


10. REALISM AND NATURALISM Gerhart Hauptmann

11. Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre

12. Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre

13. Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre

14. Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre

15. Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre

16. Andre Antoine and the Theatre Libre

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