Private Labels & Brand Competition. Dr Ariel Ezrachi, The University of Oxford Centre for Competition Law and Policy 16 January 2009, CCP UEA. Agenda. Developments of Private Labels Competitive Effects Competition Law Enforcement EC Competition Law Article 82 EC Enforcement Choices.
Dr Ariel Ezrachi,
The University of Oxford Centre for Competition Law and Policy
16 January 2009, CCP UEA
1. Lower Costs
40 per cent of consumers who purchase private labels, do so due to the lower prices of goods. 30 per cent see these labels as being a better value than brand equivalent.
UK Competition Commission Grocery Market Inquiry, ‘Working paper on the competitive effects of own label goods’ para 8(Final Report published 30.04.08)
8. Free Riding
Article 81 EC
Article 82 EC
-Cumulative effects as alternative?
Achieve lower prices, better quality and a wider choice of new or improved goods and services. Guidance on the Commission's Enforcement Priorities in Applying Article 82 EC
-Robert L. Steiner: Vertical competition exists…
-Rob Walton, Wal-Mart Chairman: ‘The manufacturer’s price is something that’s determined largely by negotiating power of retailers that carry his merchandise’, ie by vertical upstream competition.’