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PicoRadio RF Transmitter & Group Update PowerPoint PPT Presentation

PicoRadio RF Transmitter & Group Update Yuen Hui Chee Prof. Jan Rabaey University of California, Berkeley BWRC Winter Retreat 13 Jan 2005 PicoRadio RF Quartet Brian Otis Ultra-low power receiver architectures RF MEMS/CMOS co-design techniques Yuen-Hui Chee

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PicoRadio RF Transmitter & Group Update

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PicoRadio RF Transmitter& Group Update

Yuen Hui Chee

Prof. Jan Rabaey

University of California, Berkeley

BWRC Winter Retreat

13 Jan 2005


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PicoRadio RF Quartet

Brian Otis

  • Ultra-low power receiver architectures

  • RF MEMS/CMOS co-design techniques

  • Yuen-Hui Chee

  • Ultra-low power transmitter architectures

  • Antenna techniques

  • Nathan Pletcher

  • Reactive Radio architectures

  • Low voltage RF design

  • Simone Gambini

  • Ultra-low power A/D converters


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Sleeping nodes

Peer to Peer link

Multi-hops link

Broadcast

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) – A New Radio Environment

  • Dense network of nodes over an area

    • 100’s to 1000’s of nodes

    • Distance between nodes ≤ 10m1

  • Ad-hoc communication

    • Multi-hops

    • Peer to peer communications

  • Low data throughput

    • Small packet size

    • Low data rate

    • Bursty traffic

1 IEEE 802.15.4-2003 std


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Available Power1

Power

Size

Cost

External Passives

CC2420 Radio2

Challenges

System Integration

1S. Roundy, Energy Scavenging for Wireless Sensor Networks, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003

2Chipcon datasheets


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MICROS1 TX

Frequency Synthesizer

12mW (40%)

Modulator+DAC

0.54mW (2%)

Mixer

3.06mW (10%)

Power Amplifier

14.4mW (48%)

Total: 30mW

 = 3.3%

Current-State-of-the-Art Transmitter

MICROS1 Transmitter

Issues

  • Circuit power >> Radiated power

  • High overhead

  • Power hungry frequency synthesizer

  • Inefficient power amplification

Traditional transmitter architecture NOT suitable for PicoRadio because it has excessive energy overhead.

1P. Choi et. al, ISSCC 2003


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Direct Modulation Transmitter

  • Direct Modulation

    • Eliminates I/Q channels  less overhead power

    • No power hungry mixers

  • RF MEMS based oscillator

    • Provides a low power frequency reference

    • Fast startup time

  • Simple modulation schemes

    • On-off keying

“Lean” transmitter is suitable for low power, low data rate applications


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Sub-100W Ultra-Low Power Oscillator

Ultra-Low Power 1.9GHz FBAR Oscillator

  • Consumes a minimal power of 89W

  • Low Power Design Techniques

    • Use high Q FBAR resonator

    • Sub-threshold operation

    • Low supply voltage

    • Complementary devices to share bias current

  • Good phase noise performance

    • –120dBc/Hz at 100kHz offset

FBAR

CMOS


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Transmitter Implementation

Transmitter Performance Summary

More details (including Rx) will be presented in ISSCC 2005


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Radiated Power ~ Circuit Power

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)

Low Complexity Transmitter

Circuit Efficiency

Perspective

Radiated Power

1W

Radiated Power >> Circuit Power

Wireless LAN, Cellular

High Complexity Transmitter

PA Efficiency

100mW

10mW

1mW

100uW

Data Rate / Spectral Efficiency

Design Principles of Low Power Energy Efficient Transmitter:

Simplicity and Co-design


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1.9 GHz Active Antenna TX

Oscillator

0.36mW (20%)

Antenna

0.03mW (1%)

Power Amplifier

1.43mW (79%)

Total: 1.8mW

 = 52%

CMOS + FBAR

PILA Antenna

Solar Cell

What’s Next: Towards sub-100µW Transceiver

Active Antenna Transmitter

ST 0.13m CMOS


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What’s Next: Towards sub-100µW Transceiver

Ultra-low power digital controlled oscillator (DCO)

  • Nominal power ~ 100µW with 0.5V supply

  • Bondwire inductor or on-chip inductor

  • 200MHz tuning range @ 500kHz resolution using 9 bits capacitive bank

  • Utilize this low power DCO in a reactive radio receiver

N. Pletcher


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What’s Next: Towards sub-100µW Transceiver

  • 16MHz micromachined resonators – SiGe structural layer, low temp processing

Integrated Silicon Clocks

1µW Low Power Osc

100µW Low Phase Noise Osc

B. Otis, N. Pletcher, E. Quévy


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Thank You


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