The nature of science science skills
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The Nature of Science & Science Skills Test Review Research starts with a … Research question What the scientists wants to know What are the two general types of research: Experimental Descriptive Descriptive research is… Based mainly on observations

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The nature of science science skills l.jpg

The Nature of Science & Science Skills

Test

Review


Research starts with a l.jpg
Research starts with a …

  • Research question

    • What the scientists wants to know



Descriptive research is l.jpg
Descriptive research is…

  • Based mainly on observations


Examples of descriptive research are l.jpg
Examples of descriptive research are…

  • Making models

  • Dissections

  • Observing animals in the wild


For example l.jpg
For example…

How do the survivors of a disaster react to the disaster?

No variables; data is based on watching and talking to survivors


Experimental research is l.jpg
Experimental research is…

  • The manipulation and control of variables



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What are the three types of variables?

  • Independent variables

  • Dependent variables

  • Controlled variables

    • Also called constants


Independent variables are l.jpg
Independent variables are…

  • What is being tested

  • What is being changed

  • The difference between the groups

  • The ‘cause’ of a change


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Dependent variables are…

  • What is observed

  • What is measured

  • The data

  • The ‘effect’ caused by the independent variable


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Controlled variables are…

  • Things that could change, but don’t

  • Kept constant by the scientist

  • Allow for a fair test


So an experimental question has to indicate the variables l.jpg
So an experimental question has to indicate the variables

  • How the independent variable will AFFECT the dependent variable

  • What the EFFECT of the independent variable will be on the dependent variable


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For example…

  • How does the temperature of ocean water affect the speed of a hurricane?

    • Independent variable

      • T of ocean water

    • Dependent variable

      • Speed of a hurricane


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Predictions

  • Educated guesses about what will happen during an investigation

    • Based on prior knowledge (observations, background research, etc)


For example16 l.jpg
For example…

People in disasters will react by trying to help others as much as possible.

This is a PREDICTION because it’s a guess about what you think will happen.


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Hypothesis(plural – hypotheses)

  • Special kind of prediction

  • What makes it so special???

    • It’s a guess about the VARIABLES & their relationship, in particular,

      • How will the independent variable affect the dependent variable?????????


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How to write a hypothesis

  • Use an If, Then statement

  • IF the independent variable changes, THEN the dependent variable changes

    • This type of sentence shows what the IV will do to the DV


For example19 l.jpg
For example…

  • IF the T of ocean water increases, THEN the speed of a hurricane will increase.

  • This shows the expected relationship between the independent variable (the T of ocean water) and the dependent variable (the speed of a hurricane)

    • If the T of ocean water changes, it will cause the speed of a hurricane to change too.


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The null hypothesis

  • A statistical procedure

  • Stated as if there will be no relationship between the variables


For example21 l.jpg
For example…

  • There is no relationship between water temperature and the speed of a hurricane


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Planning the investigation – Experimental Design

  • You absolutely, positively have to know what the variables are!

    • What you are changing

      • How you are changing

    • What you are measuring

      • How you are measuring

    • Repeated trials

    • Data tables


Data tables l.jpg
Data tables?

  • Numerical (quantitative) data organized in rows and columns

  • The specific independent variables are listed

  • The number of trials are listed

  • Blanks are left for the data (dependent variable) to be filled in



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Analyzing the data

  • Reduce the data

    • Do something to make the amount of data smaller

      • Central tendencies

        • Mean (average)

        • Median

        • Mode

        • Range

        • frequency


Analyzing the data26 l.jpg
Analyzing the data

  • Graph the data

    • Lets us see trends, patterns, relationships, comparisons

    • Bar graphs

      • Let us compare data

    • Line graphs

      • Let us see trends or changes

    • Scatter plots

      • Shows correlations or associations between variables


Bar graph l.jpg
Bar graph

This shows a comparison of the types and amounts of trash found on a beach


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Line graph

This shows a change in grade point averages; the trend is an increase in GPA


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Scatter plotPositive Correlation

An increase in the variable on the X-axis is associated with an increase in the variable on the Y-axis


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Scatter plotNegative Correlation

An increase in the variable on the X-axis is associated with an decrease in the variable on the Y-axis


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Scatter plotNo Correlation

Random data points – there is no association between the variables


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Conclusions

  • How we sum up the investigation

    • Does the data support the hypothesis?

      • If it does – we accept the hypothesis

      • If it does not – we reject the hypothesis

    • All back up what you say with data

      • Evidence

    • Discuss issues or problems with the investigation

    • Discuss the importance or relevance of the investigation


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Communicate what you know

  • Finding out something new doesn’t do anyone any good unless the new knowledge is shared

    • Journals & magazines

    • Presentations


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