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# NOSTestReviewGT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The Nature of Science & Science Skills Test Review Research starts with a … Research question What the scientists wants to know What are the two general types of research: Experimental Descriptive Descriptive research is… Based mainly on observations

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### The Nature of Science & Science Skills

Test

Review

• Research question

• What the scientists wants to know

• Experimental

• Descriptive

• Based mainly on observations

• Making models

• Dissections

• Observing animals in the wild

How do the survivors of a disaster react to the disaster?

No variables; data is based on watching and talking to survivors

• The manipulation and control of variables

### Speaking of variables….

• Independent variables

• Dependent variables

• Controlled variables

• Also called constants

• What is being tested

• What is being changed

• The difference between the groups

• The ‘cause’ of a change

• What is observed

• What is measured

• The data

• The ‘effect’ caused by the independent variable

• Things that could change, but don’t

• Kept constant by the scientist

• Allow for a fair test

• How the independent variable will AFFECT the dependent variable

• What the EFFECT of the independent variable will be on the dependent variable

• How does the temperature of ocean water affect the speed of a hurricane?

• Independent variable

• T of ocean water

• Dependent variable

• Speed of a hurricane

• Educated guesses about what will happen during an investigation

• Based on prior knowledge (observations, background research, etc)

People in disasters will react by trying to help others as much as possible.

This is a PREDICTION because it’s a guess about what you think will happen.

Hypothesis(plural – hypotheses)

• Special kind of prediction

• What makes it so special???

• It’s a guess about the VARIABLES & their relationship, in particular,

• How will the independent variable affect the dependent variable?????????

• Use an If, Then statement

• IF the independent variable changes, THEN the dependent variable changes

• This type of sentence shows what the IV will do to the DV

• IF the T of ocean water increases, THEN the speed of a hurricane will increase.

• This shows the expected relationship between the independent variable (the T of ocean water) and the dependent variable (the speed of a hurricane)

• If the T of ocean water changes, it will cause the speed of a hurricane to change too.

• A statistical procedure

• Stated as if there will be no relationship between the variables

• There is no relationship between water temperature and the speed of a hurricane

• You absolutely, positively have to know what the variables are!

• What you are changing

• How you are changing

• What you are measuring

• How you are measuring

• Repeated trials

• Data tables

• Numerical (quantitative) data organized in rows and columns

• The specific independent variables are listed

• The number of trials are listed

• Blanks are left for the data (dependent variable) to be filled in

• Reduce the data

• Do something to make the amount of data smaller

• Central tendencies

• Mean (average)

• Median

• Mode

• Range

• frequency

• Graph the data

• Lets us see trends, patterns, relationships, comparisons

• Bar graphs

• Let us compare data

• Line graphs

• Let us see trends or changes

• Scatter plots

• Shows correlations or associations between variables

This shows a comparison of the types and amounts of trash found on a beach

This shows a change in grade point averages; the trend is an increase in GPA

Scatter plotPositive Correlation

An increase in the variable on the X-axis is associated with an increase in the variable on the Y-axis

Scatter plotNegative Correlation

An increase in the variable on the X-axis is associated with an decrease in the variable on the Y-axis

Scatter plotNo Correlation

Random data points – there is no association between the variables

• How we sum up the investigation

• Does the data support the hypothesis?

• If it does – we accept the hypothesis

• If it does not – we reject the hypothesis

• All back up what you say with data

• Evidence

• Discuss issues or problems with the investigation

• Discuss the importance or relevance of the investigation

• Finding out something new doesn’t do anyone any good unless the new knowledge is shared

• Journals & magazines

• Presentations