GEOMODELS AS A KEY COMPONENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANA...
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GEOMODELS AS A KEY COMPONENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA. Martin Ross, UW Richard Martel, INRS Genevi ève Parent, INRS Alex Smirnoff, GSC. 155-mm Howitzer Round. TNT Near Ruptured 90-mm Round. M67 Hand Grenade. 2.75-in Rocket Warhead.

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GEOMODELS AS A KEY COMPONENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA

Martin Ross, UW

Richard Martel, INRS

Geneviève Parent, INRS

Alex Smirnoff, GSC


155-mm Howitzer Round ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA

TNT Near Ruptured 90-mm Round

M67 Hand Grenade

2.75-in Rocket Warhead


General problem
General problem ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA

  • Environmental impact of training activities

  • Land use sustainability issues

    • Using training ranges

    • Maintaining base facilities

      • Whilelimiting the impact on the environment…

    • Remediation of pollutedmilitaryfacilities

    • Base closures, lawsuits, etc.


General objectives
General objectives ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA

  • Characterize the state of the environment on military training ranges

    • SW, GW, Soil

    • Aquifer vulnerability

  • Understand the environmental behavior of energetic materials under field conditions

    • Field and lab experiments

    • Contaminant transport, Specific vulnerability

    • Risk analysis

  • Design sustainable training methods


Integrated approach

Geological mapping ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA

Surface and GW surveys

Database development

  • Initial drilling phase

  • Water level, and sampling

  • surveys

  • Field measurements

    • Infiltration tests, Slug tests

  • Sediments

  • Landforms

  • Archival data

  • New data

Initial 2D and 3D analyses

  • Subsurface analysis (cross sections, early 3D models)

  • Initial hydrogeologic conceptual model

  • Geophysics

  • Stratigraphic drilling

  • New wells, new tests

Strategic subsurface investigation

Advanced 3D modeling

  • Geological modeling

  • Hydrogeological modeling

  • Contaminant plume visualization

Integrated approach


Field work
Field work ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA

Geological mapping

GW sampling

Subsurface

sampling

Well drilling

Field tests


  • Cold Lake Air Weapons Range (AB) ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA

  • - Gagetown (NB)

  • - Wainwright Area Training Center (AB)

  • - Shilo (MB)

  • - Petawawa (ON)

  • - Valcartier (QC)


3d model watc
3D model (WATC) ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA

Thrust mass of proglacial seds.

Hummocky

terrain

10 km

Eskers

Aeolian sand

Bedrock

Moraine; till

N


Aquifer 2 unit ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA


Well locations
Well Locations ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA

Wells from previous studies (30) sampled (5)

INRS Wells 2003 (30) samples (25)

INRS Wells 2004 (15) samples (35)

INRS Wells 2005 (13) samples (53)


The geomodeling approach
The geomodeling approach ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA


Semi regular grids prismatic cells
Semi-regular grids (prismatic cells) ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA

Irregular xy-plane mesh

(Same as original surface)

Regular in z

Thinner cells

Thicker cells


Nodes edges faces
Nodes, edges, faces ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA


Model verification validation
Model verification/validation ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA


Applications

Applications ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA

Aquifer vulnerability and risk analyses


Downward advective time dat method
Downward advective time (DAT) method ASSESSMENTS OF MILITARY TRAINING RANGES IN CANADA

ground surface

q = recharge rate

m = cell thickness (vadose zone thk)

n = water content

water table



Applications1

Applications Vulnerability and Risk Maps

GW flow and contaminant transport modeling


Geomodel vs gw models
Geomodel vs GW models Vulnerability and Risk Maps

3D gOcad model

Semi-regular grid (GridLab)

“Twin” grid (GMS)


Visualisation qa qc
Visualisation, QA/QC… Vulnerability and Risk Maps

Uppermost layer


Towards an interface
Towards an interface… Vulnerability and Risk Maps


The goal of the interface

Facilitate transfer of GOCAD geomodel properties to the GMS grid

Develop a tool in order to replace Access procedures

Attach a simple and intuitive interface to facilitate user interaction with the tool

The goal of the interface

IDE (Integrated Development Environment) for Java called JBuilder


Inputs and outputs
Inputs and outputs grid

GOCAD Files with Properties

GMS File with GOCAD Properties

GOGMS

GMS File


Interface java
Interface (Java) grid

Layer Files Management Buttons

GOCAD Layer Files Panel

GMS File Panel

Status And Progress Bars

Property Transfer Button


Summary geomodeling approach
Summary – geomodeling approach grid

Integrated approach / solution

Software interplay / interoperability

Multiple applications

 grid types / resolution

Model building

Stratigraphic repository

Geologic knowledge

Data gathering



  • Grenade ranges, grid

  • Anti-tank ranges,

  • Mortar/Artillery,

  • Air weapons ranges

  • Demolition ranges,

  • Small Arms ranges…


Typical anti tank range
Typical anti-tank range grid

  • Rockets have a high misfire rate (20-40%)

  • Unexploded charges at the soil surface

Targets (old tanks)


Conceptual model vadose zone

Slow and irregular release of EM grid

TNT

HMX

No transformation, No mineralization

Transformation in 2A-DNT + 4A-DNT

Transported to the water table

Products bind to the soil

Conceptual model (vadose zone)

Rockets

Target

Octol

Soil Surface

Unsaturated Zone

Saturated Zone


Different scales different needs

Regional assessment grid

Different settings

Multiple objectives

Gw flow system

Hydrogeochemistry

Aquifer vulnerability

Risks (human activities)

Low HQ subsurface data density

Modeling near-surface and extensive units

Site-specific studies

Fewer settings and objectives

Local GW flow

Behavior of contaminants

Site remediation

Higher HQ data density

More detailed near-surface stratigraphy

Modeling internal heterogeneity?

Different scales, different needs


CLAWR grid

110 km

WATC

AB

SK


Hydraulic heads in the upper aquifer
Hydraulic Heads in the Upper Aquifer grid

Average Groundwater Velocity in the Upper Aquifer: ~15 m/year

?

?

?


Interoperability
Interoperability… grid

  • Different applications generally have different needs/requirements

    • Model resolution / stratigraphic details

    • Type of discretization

    • Discontinuous vs continuous units

  • Multiple softwares may be involved

    • Compatibility problem

    • “Software interplay”:

      • Time-consuming operations

      • Integration of errors


A streamlined process
A streamlined process… grid

  • The Geologic Framework Model is created first

  • 3D grids are generated/updated semi-automatically

    • A series of actions is executed by a user

    • The “history” is saved (text file)

    • This file is updated and run every time the same task (e.g. building a new discretization) is needed

      • Run time… just enough to go get a coffee…


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