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MH-8:Making War More Lethal

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MH-8:Making War More Lethal . New Technologies, Institutions, & Ideas Strategic Overview. Late 19th Century – New Imperialism in West grows: Scramble for Empire – Africa, Asia, LATAM: Competition & conflict emerges as a result; West controls 85% all Lands by 1914;

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new technologies institutions ideas strategic overview
New Technologies, Institutions, & IdeasStrategic Overview
  • Late 19th Century – New Imperialism in West grows:
    • Scramble for Empire – Africa, Asia, LATAM:
    • Competition & conflict emerges as a result;
    • West controls 85% all Lands by 1914;
  • Industrialization accelerates & expands:
    • Impact: advanced technology in West;
      • Weapons technology increases West’s killing power;
      • War now more dangerous & lethal;
  • Central government’s power grew dramatically:
    • Control over $$$ resources & population;
    • Able to direct state’s resources to military & war
impact of late 19 th century advances
Impact of Late 19th Century Advances
  • Effect of advances & changes influenced & shaped:
    • West’s military tactics, techniques, concepts, & methods
    • Organization & equipment for control & support
    • Weapons advances: rifles, machine guns, artillery:
      • Greater increase range, accuracy, rate of fire
      • For artillery: accurate plunging fire (back side of hills)
      • Weapons now wore lethal, efficient, & effective in war
  • For Navy: Dreadnought superseded older Battleships:
    • Impact: Shaped western International Affairs & National Security Strategy
    • Western nations’ FP became more aggressive
      • (Asia, Africa, & Caribbean for US)
new military naval concepts ideas
New Military & Naval Concepts & Ideas
  • Major impact on models & systems for waging war
    • Adopt successful military models of recent history
  • Prussian General Staff – successes studied
    • Austria-Prussian-1866 & Franco-Prussian Wars- 1871
    • Planning, Command & Control copied & adapted
  • A.T. Mahan’s theory &impact on Naval Strategy:
    • West embraces Sea Power & Control of the Seas
    • Blue Water Navy sought by budding Imperialists
    • Build Battleships & bases to protect $$$ markets
three regional conflicts
Three Regional Conflicts
  • Three Regional Conflicts of the period:
    • Refutedorverified these changes in methods of war
      • Spanish-American War
      • Boer War
      • Russo-Japanese War
  • Above offered a varied mix of lessons learned
    • Too often with the wrong lesson drawn-Boer War
  • Weapons technology advances had a significant impact on tactics
    • Whether or not commanders were alert to them & able to adapt
new weapons technology
New Weapons Technology
  • Impact of Industrial Revolution:
    • Steam & steel:
    • More powerful explosives;
    • Population increases;
    • Greater destruction & killing power;
  • Impact of various weapons technology advances:
    • Smokeless powder (visibility & concealment);
    • Artillery (potential for rapid indirect fire support):
      • High round trajectory
      • Recoil mechanism
      • Breech loading
    • Tactical impact was mixed
new weapons technology 2
New Weapons Technology- 2
  • Machine Guns:
    • Replaced direct fire artillery support (up front)
    • Artillery (plunging fire) placed to rear of infantry
  • Rifles: increased range, accuracy, & rate of fire:
    • Smokeless powder;
    • Magazine loaders;
    • Metallic cartridges;
  • Relevant innovations:
    • Telegraph & field telephone (HQ to front lines)
    • Command, Control, Communication (C3)
new weapons technology details
New Weapons Technology- Details
  • Machine Guns:
    • Before 1884: required external power source
      • Example=> Gatling gun
    • Maxim invented a self-powered gun in 1884
      • Capable of firing 600 rounds per minute
    • Russians first to employ machine guns during the Russo-Japan War
    • British Vickers Maxim- more portable at 38 lbs & used WWI & II
advances in rifles
Advances in Rifles
  • Sequence of advances in Rifles:
    • 1871: Mauser invents first metallic cartridge, bolt action
    • 1885: von Mannlicher invents clip loading magazine
    • 1886: French Lebel rifle invented
    • 1893: U.S. Army adopts .30 caliber, 5 shot Krag -Jorgensonrifle
      • Employed during Spanish-American War
    • 1903: U.S. bolt-action Springfieldrifle invented & adopted
      • Primary infantry weapon of WWI
advances in artillery
Advances in Artillery
  • Technical & Tactical changes in Artillery (arty):
    • Firing trajectory became more rounded
    • Able to fire behind enemy infantry
      • (with tactical implications)
    • Recoil system develop using hydrostatic buffer & recuperator system => tactical impact?
    • More accurate sustained fire possible
  • Key examples used in WWI:
    • Germany’s heavy guns (Fort busters) & on ships
    • French 75 mm field gun- 1893- light, mobile, rapid fire
    • Austria-Hungary’s Howitzers
new weapons technology details 2
New Weapons Technology- Details-2
  • Smokeless Powder:
    • Invented by Paul Vioillee (1884)
    • Advantages: more powerful & stable
      • Eliminated telltale smoke (position), cleaner & faster, more even burn
      • Longer range projection of round
  • Related Developments & Advances:
    • TNT- increased stability & yield of high explosives
    • Improved Steel- improved design strength for lighter weapons
    • Telegraph & telephone improved command, control, & communication (C3)
prussian general staff system
Prussian General Staff System
  • Impact Prussian victories in 1866 & 71:
    • Studied extensively throughout Europe & Japan:
  • Prussian model & composition:
    • Elite general staff (direct peacetime access to Kaiser)
    • Highly educated & trained professionals (63 to 600+)
  • Prussian model adapted in various ways & degrees:
    • Great Britain – ambivalent & stuck in British tradition
    • France- impressed but conflicted in attitude
    • United States:
      • Traditional American attitudes (No standing pro Army)
      • Congress: concerns toward professional officers
    • Japan- impressed & adopted Prussian model
navies naval theorists
Navies & Naval Theorists
  • Growing global (West & Japan) interest in Navies:
    • Competition for Empire & Social Darwinism
      • As expressed by Kipling’s “White Man’s Burden”
    • Improved capability in range, speed, & fuel efficiency
    • British Dreadnought replaced old BBs- now obsolete
    • Mahan’s theory of Sea Powerhad major impact
  • Naval Theorists & three contrasting views:
    • Admiral Aube & Jenue’Ecole – commerce raiding:
      • Guerre de course and the small nation & Fleet (France)
    • Julian Corbett & Maritime Strategy:
      • The real role of Navies: support the land force & a Nation’s overall grand strategy (Army’s view)
    • Alfred Thayer Mahan & The Influence of Sea Power:*
alfred thayer mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
  • Major impact on Western Europe, Japan, & United States
    • Analysis of history of sea power throughout ages
    • Island Nation characteristics & maritime orientation
  • Key purpose of Navy: Command of the Sea:
    • Ensure friendly commerce & trade of merchant fleet
    • Deny same benefits to Nation’s enemies
  • Key Tactical Objectiveof Fleet:
    • Destroy enemy’s Fleet at sea in battle (Battleships)
    • Mahan: “Never divide the Fleet.”
  • Professional Navy officer corps attitude on Mahan
    • More BBs means bigger Navy budget & promotions
small regional wars overview
Small Regional Wars – overview
  • Contributing Social Factors – late 19th century:
    • Social Darwinism applied Darwin’s theory of “Survival of the fittest” to society & Nations=>
    • New Imperialism (prestige & image of power)
    • Christian missionaries (convert native peoples)
    • Economic incentives (trade, markets, raw materials)
  • Contributing Western Technical refinements:
    • Screw propeller on ships (more efficient & protected)
    • More efficient steam engines:
      • Less fuel consumption
      • Greater ranges
      • Greater cargo loads
    • All above allowed West to dominate the “Third World”
escalating competition
Escalating Competition
  • Result: Competition among Western Powers grows
  • Industrial West easily overcame native resistance through the use of:
    • Gunboat Diplomacy
    • Threats & shows of force
    • Bombardments of port cities
    • Power projection, intervention, & invasion
  • Main problem main with small wars:
    • According to Major Caldwell:
    • Indigenous peoples follow their own rules & not West’s
      • (Guerilla warfare & indigenous insurgencies)
    • His unheeded advice demonstrated in 3 small wars
spanish american war prelude
Spanish American War- Prelude
  • America’s control of Western Hemisphere:
    • Started with the Monroe Doctrine of 1823
    • Growing US – Spanish tensions in Caribbean
    • Cuban Revolution in 1895 & negative Spanish PR
  • Two key events influencing American attitudes:
    • Spanish insult to President McKinley
    • Remember the Maine!
  • US preparations for war:
    • Navy mostly ready with 4 new 1st class Battleships
    • Army totally unprepared:
      • Lack of troops, training, logistics &competent HQ staff
      • Small unit operations experience only
      • No Strategic, Operational, or Tactical Plans
spanish american war strategy tactics
Spanish American War- Strategy & Tactics
  • Lack of strategic plan & tactical objectives:
    • Evolving strategic objectives: take Cuba, Philippines, & PR
    • Ambiguous tactical objectives – plan as you go
    • Santiago, Cuba evolves as target for the Army
spanish american war strategic deployment
Spanish American War- Strategic Deployment
  • Navy divides the Fleet
    • Navy deploys to Cuba & gains “control of the sea”
    • Traps Spanish Fleet within Santiago
  • General Shafter deploys with Navy to Caribbean
    • Conducts amphib landing
  • Admiral Dewey deploys to the Philippines
    • Boldly sails into Manila Bay at night
    • Destroys Spanish Fleet next morning
    • Captures Manila & becomes hero
naval strategic operational execution
Naval Strategic & Operational Execution
  • Admirals Sampson & Schley deploy as ordered off Cuba
    • Schley blocked AdmCervera’s Fleet within Santiago harbor
    • But Spanish guns blocked any further advance into the harbor
  • What must happen first before the Navy can proceed to finish its mission??______________________*
army operational tactical execution
Army Operational & Tactical Execution
  • US Army was tasked to take out guns blocking harbor
  • General Shafter landed at Daiquiri (later at Siboney)
  • Tactical objectives:
    • El Caney on RF (Fortified=> US severely repulsed & stalled)
    • Kettle Hill & San Juan Hill (Concentrated Arty finally succeeds)
    • But Shafter’s troops had stalled & want to await reinforcement
naval tactical execution
Naval Tactical Execution
  • Fortunately for USN, Spain orders Cervera’s Fleet to break out
    • He complies with what is essentially a suicide mission
  • Como Schley attacks as Spanish attempt to flee; sink several ships
spanish american war results
Spanish American War- Results
  • Costly tactical “victory”
    • Especially for the Army
    • Future President becomes a hero
    • With a little help from the Buffalo soldiers
  • Operational & strategic victory:
    • Cuba & Puerto Rico put under US control
    • Spain ejected from Western Hemisphere for good
    • Downside: Philippines evolved into long term occupation and bloody insurgency
      • American motives questioned as a result
  • Lessons Learned:
    • Numerous US tactical planning & logistics shortfalls identified (also generalship)
    • Good defense appeared to trump offense
the second boer war 1899 1902
The Second Boer War (1899-1902)
  • Overview:
    • Bloody & costly war between Britain & Boers
  • Conventional Phase:
    • British finally able to dominate but Boers would not give up
    • Excellent marksmen with modern rifles who refused to play by conventional rules or tactics
the second boer war 1899 190225
The Second Boer War (1899-1902)
  • Guerrilla WarPhase:
    • Boers waged effective GW
    • Conducted hit & run ambush against small separated Brit units
    • “Block Houses” were built along main railroad lines to protect them
  • Meanwhile Lord Kitchener employed harsh tactics to deal with the guerrillas & their supporters (families)
    • His scorched earth strategy destroyed many farms
    • Families of guerrillas were placed in concentration camps
      • Over a third imprisoned died
the second boer war results
The Second Boer War - Results
  • British finally repress insurgency
    • Casualties: 8K British soldiers vs. 4K Boer fighters
    • Over forty thousand civilians died of disease in camps
  • Significance of the war:
    • British appreciation for marksmanship of Boers
    • Tactical innovations:
      • Indirect artillery fire (against positions on reverse slope)
      • Creeping barrage with advancing infantry
        • Employed as tactic for cover and rushing advance
  • Lessons not Learned:
    • Failure to incorporate above into future tactics (WWI)
    • Boer War considered unique & not relevant by generals
      • Russo-Japanese War seen as more likely (Euro mil. observers)
russo japanese war 1904 05
Russo-Japanese War (1904-05)
  • Origin of war:
    • Struggle for control of Port Arthur & Manchuria
    • Japan feels threatened when Russians occupy Manchuria
    • Russia starts RR construction to Port Arthur
  • Japan launches surprise attack on Russia Far East Fleet at Port Arthur
    • Follow up w/invasion force of four armies (shown by white arrows)
russo japanese war significance
Russo-Japanese War- Significance
  • Japan’s determination displayed at Mukden:
    • Flanking & frontal assaults
    • Wave upon human wave against well entrenched defenders
  • Role of Prussian System & Japan’s Sea Power & (Togo’s victory at Tsushima)
  • Significance- War demonstrated complexities of:
    • Strategic & tactical surprise
      • Surprise attack on Russian Fleet at Port Arthur caught Russia off guard
    • Complex Command, control, & employment of large armies
    • *Tactical impact of modern weapons used in defense against offense:
      • Machine gun & effective indirect fire
    • Costly but effective frontal and f flank assaults by waves of Japanese troops (with tragic implications for WWI)
russo japanese war s impact
Russo-Japanese War’s Impact
  • Japan demonstrated superior operations & tactics
    • Especially at sea: faster, modern battleships, superior gunnery, & better trained & motivated seaman
  • Geo-Political & Strategic impact:
    • Japan gained parts of Manchuria & Sakhalin’s lower half
    • Eastern Power had defeated Western Power for first time:
    • Great prestige was gained by Japan on the world stage
    • Russia descended into 1905 Revolution
  • Wrong lesson learned:
    • Élancan overcome strong defense armed with machine guns & artillery
assessment
Assessment
  • Dramatic change in war’s conduct between 1871-1914:
    • New weapons & advanced technologies
    • New techniques & tactics
    • Command & HQ staff advancements:
      • Command, control, & communications improved
      • Strategic & logistical planning improved;
    • Prussian system analyzed & selectively adapted
      • By Japan, France, Britain, & United States
  • Tactics employed during Russo-Japanese War
    • Indication of how future wars would be fought (WWI)
assessment 2
Assessment- 2
  • Major changes linked to societal changes:
    • Central government control & exploitation of:
      • Industrial Revolution;
        • Technological advances & R&D & weapons & equipmentinnovations
      • Population increase and its control & direction;
      • Politics to support national goals (Nationalism & propaganda)
      • Management & use of $$$ resources (mobilization for war)
  • Reforms & application of lessons learned mixed:
    • Small wars provided new ideas & tactics to consider
    • Still wrong lessons drawn from last war fought:
      • Offense considered superior to Defense => World War I
      • Morale (élan) over entrenched machine guns & arty?!!
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