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Mixing System Design for the Tati Activox ® Autoclave. Marc Nicolle, Mark Bellino – Hatch Africa (Pty) Ltd. Gerhard Nel –Norilsk Nickel South Africa (Pty) Ltd. Tom Plikas, Umesh Shah, Lyle Zunti – Hatch - Ltd. Herman J. H. Pieterse – Pieterse Consulting, Inc. Agenda. Introduction

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mixing system design for the tati activox autoclave

Mixing System Design for the Tati Activox® Autoclave

Marc Nicolle, Mark Bellino – Hatch Africa (Pty) Ltd.

Gerhard Nel –Norilsk Nickel South Africa (Pty) Ltd.

Tom Plikas, Umesh Shah, Lyle Zunti – Hatch - Ltd.

Herman J. H. Pieterse – Pieterse Consulting, Inc.

agenda
Agenda
  • Introduction
    • Location of Tati
    • TA®P Flowsheet
    • Demo Plant Autoclave
  • Autoclave Design Review
    • Different Oxygen Mass Transfer Coefficients
    • Prudent Option Selected
    • Autoclave Design Modified (5 vs. 4 Comp)
  • Design Modification
  • Evaluation
    • Design Concerns
      • Demo Plant Test Work
      • CSTR modelling
      • CFD modelling
  • Final Agitator Design
  • Conclusions

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

where is tati
Where is Tati?

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

basic process flowsheet
Basic Process Flowsheet

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

demo plant autoclave
Demo Plant Autoclave

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

autoclave design review
Autoclave Design Review
  • Autoclave design review in Canada
  • Over 75% of Ni is recovered in C1
  • Concern on the original O2 mass transfer coefficient used to size the agitators in C1
  • This indicated a lower agitator power requirement than the empirical correlation
  • Two options:
    • Increase power to C1 agitators or,
    • Increase the number of C1 agitators
  • Autoclave design modified from five compartments to four

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

autoclave design review1
Autoclave Design Review

Why remove a compartment?

  • Increased power per agitator:
    • P/V between 3.9 kW/m3 – 4.7 kW/m3
    • Outside range of commercial autoclaves
    • Agitator mass and bending moment – shell stress
  • Increased number of agitators:
    • P/V between 2.3 kW/m3 – 2.9 kW/m3
    • Within the range of existing autoclaves

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

design modification
Design Modification

Slurry Overflow

Weir

Flash Recycle

Pipes

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

Quench Water

Inlet

Slurry Feed

Pipes

Baffles

Oxygen Sparger

8 Blade Rushton Turbine

evaluation
Evaluation

Design Concerns to be Evaluated:

  • Validity of Empirical Correlation
  • Drop in Metal Recovery
  • Hot Spots
  • Brick Lining Wear (swirling under the impeller)
  • Residence Time Comparison

Method of Evaluation

  • Point 1 – Testwork
  • Point 2 – Theory
  • Point 3, 4 & 5 – CFD analysis

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

validity of empirical correlation demo plant test work
Validity of Empirical Correlation -Demo Plant Test Work
  • Measured P/V > empirical correlation (2.6kW/m3 vs. 1.4kW/m3)
  • Subsequent runs were carried out
  • Significant Ni recovery drop off below 1.4kW/m3

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

validity of empirical correlation test results

Comparatively Consistent

Recoveries

%

Recovery

Gassed power per unit volume [kW/m3]

1.4kW/m3

Validity of Empirical Correlation – Test Results

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

drop in metal recovery theoretical cstr evaluation

Inflection point

105 min

Drop in Metal Recovery – Theoretical CSTR Evaluation

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

hot spots cfd analysis velocity profile

View

All Agitators – Same Rotation

Middle Agitator – Reverse Rotation

Feed and flash discharge pipe section

Hot Spots – CFD Analysis Velocity Profile

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

brick lining wear cfd analysis velocity profile
Brick Lining Wear – CFD Analysis Velocity Profile

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

residence time comparison agitator rotation direction
Residence Time Comparison – Agitator Rotation Direction

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

residence time comparison agitator rotation direction1
Residence Time Comparison – Agitator Rotation Direction

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

final agitator design
Final Agitator Design
  • Eight blade Rushton turbine
  • Increased blade height
  • 186kW VSD motor
  • 69% - 2.8kW/m3
  • 85% - 3.4kW/m3

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Reducing the number of compartments (5 -4) should have negligible impact on metal recovery
  • Commercial design finalised with 3 agitators in the 1st compartment
  • Well mixed 1st compartment – 7.2 turnovers/min
  • Theoretical residence time of C1 same as modelled CFD residence time
  • Expect a uniform reaction extent and temperature through the compartment
  • Weir wall allowed for between agitators 2 and 3 to allow for a 5 compartment scenario to be run if required

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

thanks
Thanks
  • Norilsk Nickel
  • Hatch – ATG
  • Pieterse Consulting
  • Hatch – Africa

Introduction

Autoclave Design Review

Design Modification

Evaluation

Final Agitator Design

Conclusions

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