Mems invention to market
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MEMS: Invention to Market. Invention->Market Creation of a new market is slow. Market->Invention (easier) What is the existing competition? Impact – will it take over the market? Manufacturing Sales

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MEMS: Invention to Market

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Mems invention to market

MEMS: Invention to Market

  • Invention->Market

    • Creation of a new market is slow.

  • Market->Invention (easier)

    • What is the existing competition?

    • Impact – will it take over the market?

  • Manufacturing

  • Sales

  • Modeling as in this course: Analysis of options, performance, price. Planning of R+D, business plan.


Device categories

Device Categories

  • Technology Demonstrations

    • Test device concept

    • Test fabrication technology

    • Small # of devices/low yield ok

  • Research Tools

    • Small # of devices, often custom.

  • Commercial Products

    • Large # of devices, high yield, low cost, packaging all critical.


Transducers sensors and actuators

Transducers, Sensors, and Actuators

  • Transducers: Generally convert one form of energy to another. (Not generally conserving energy.)

    • Could be a sensor or an actuator.

  • Sensors measure something and provide an output signal. Usually electrical, but sometimes optical or mechanical.

  • Actuators move something. (But what would an LED be?)


Domains

Domains

  • Thermal (temperature, heat, heat flow)

  • Mechanical (force, pressure, velocity, acceleration, position)

  • Chemical (concentration, composition, reaction rate)

  • Magnetic (magnetic field intensity, magnetization)

  • Radient (intensity, wavelength, polarization, phase)

  • Electrical (voltage, current, charge, resistance)


Examples of sensors and actuators

Examples of Sensors and Actuators

  • Position Sensors

    • Resistive strain sensor. (dimensions change, R=rl/A)

    • Piezoresistive strain sensor. (dimensions and r change)

      Sensitivity measured by the gauge factor

      GF=relative resistance change/strain=(DR/R)/(DL/L)=DR/eR

      GF=~2 for metals (mostly geometry, some piezoresistance)

      GF=~100 for semiconductors (piezoresistive)


Mems invention to market

  • Piezoelectric materials (Curies, 1880)

    • Electric field <-> strain (deformation)

    • Polarization <-> stress

    • Sensor/Actuator

    • In your watch, Quartz (but this is changing!! (Si Time))

    • Also pyroelectric materials have

      temperature<->polarization.


Mems invention to market

  • Magnetostrictive Actuators

    • Materials expand/contract with magnetic field

    • Similar to piezoelectric effect

    • Terfenol-D Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe1.9 -> strain of 2X10-3 or 0.2%.

  • Permanent magnetic materials

    • Micromirror, microrelay, micromotor

N S

N S

B


Mems invention to market

  • RF MEMS – Switching or changing capacitance or building micromachined RF components.


Mems invention to market

Also ink jets!


Mems invention to market

  • Biological Actuators – Future, nano, research stage.

  • Biomedical Sensors and Actuators

    • Neural probes

    • Artificial retinas

    • Hearing prosthetics (in use)

    • Living cells as sensors (chips for culturing and measuring cell properties (see Kovaks, for example)

  • Chemical Actuators – Electrochemical actuators using polypyrrole.


Mems invention to market

  • Chemical Sensors – many types!

    • Chemireisistors (organic and inorganic)

    • Chemicapacitors

    • Micromachined Calorimeter (combustible gasses or explosive particles)

    • Micro hot plate (R(T) for several materials.

    • Chem FETs

      • Can do the same thing with many ion sensitive membranes.

Pd – Sensitive to hydrogen at 10 ppm

Problem: Drift


Mems invention to market

  • Pumps

    • Mechanical

    • Electrophoretic/Electroosmotic, used in separations of DNA and protein fragments.

V

Neutrals dragged along by mobile ions. Flow nearly constant velocity across channel.

mobile +ions

+ + + + + + +

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immobile -ions


Mems invention to market

  • Optical Transducers

    • MANY types!

    • Overlap between commercial electronics and MEMS.

    • Thermal (Bolometers)

      • Light heats element, causes resistance change.

    • Fabry Perot etalon type devices (interference) for changing reflection. Like microspectrometer shown previously.

    • E-ink displays (MEMS?)

    • Thermocouple

    • Golay cell

      • Light -> heat -> expanding gas -> moves something -> signal.

    • Spectrometers

    • Diffractive sensors.

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Preview of a case study or project capacitive accelerometer p 497 senturia

Preview of a case study (or project).Capacitive Accelerometer, p. 497, Senturia.

  • Fabrication Technology – sets limits on structures.

  • Lumped element modeling in different domains.

  • Capacitive transducer/actuator

  • Elasticity, contact mechanics, stiction

  • Structures – springs/beams.

  • Fluids – squeeze film damping

  • Electronics, feedback

  • System dynamics

  • Noise


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