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MEMS: Invention to Market. Invention->Market Creation of a new market is slow. Market->Invention (easier) What is the existing competition? Impact – will it take over the market? Manufacturing Sales

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Presentation Transcript
mems invention to market
MEMS: Invention to Market
  • Invention->Market
    • Creation of a new market is slow.
  • Market->Invention (easier)
    • What is the existing competition?
    • Impact – will it take over the market?
  • Manufacturing
  • Sales
  • Modeling as in this course: Analysis of options, performance, price. Planning of R+D, business plan.
device categories
Device Categories
  • Technology Demonstrations
    • Test device concept
    • Test fabrication technology
    • Small # of devices/low yield ok
  • Research Tools
    • Small # of devices, often custom.
  • Commercial Products
    • Large # of devices, high yield, low cost, packaging all critical.
transducers sensors and actuators
Transducers, Sensors, and Actuators
  • Transducers: Generally convert one form of energy to another. (Not generally conserving energy.)
    • Could be a sensor or an actuator.
  • Sensors measure something and provide an output signal. Usually electrical, but sometimes optical or mechanical.
  • Actuators move something. (But what would an LED be?)
domains
Domains
  • Thermal (temperature, heat, heat flow)
  • Mechanical (force, pressure, velocity, acceleration, position)
  • Chemical (concentration, composition, reaction rate)
  • Magnetic (magnetic field intensity, magnetization)
  • Radient (intensity, wavelength, polarization, phase)
  • Electrical (voltage, current, charge, resistance)
examples of sensors and actuators
Examples of Sensors and Actuators
  • Position Sensors
    • Resistive strain sensor. (dimensions change, R=rl/A)
    • Piezoresistive strain sensor. (dimensions and r change)

Sensitivity measured by the gauge factor

GF=relative resistance change/strain=(DR/R)/(DL/L)=DR/eR

GF=~2 for metals (mostly geometry, some piezoresistance)

GF=~100 for semiconductors (piezoresistive)

slide6

Piezoelectric materials (Curies, 1880)

    • Electric field <-> strain (deformation)
    • Polarization <-> stress
    • Sensor/Actuator
    • In your watch, Quartz (but this is changing!! (Si Time))
    • Also pyroelectric materials have

temperature<->polarization.

slide12

Magnetostrictive Actuators

    • Materials expand/contract with magnetic field
    • Similar to piezoelectric effect
    • Terfenol-D Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe1.9 -> strain of 2X10-3 or 0.2%.
  • Permanent magnetic materials
    • Micromirror, microrelay, micromotor

N S

N S

B

slide16

Biological Actuators – Future, nano, research stage.

  • Biomedical Sensors and Actuators
    • Neural probes
    • Artificial retinas
    • Hearing prosthetics (in use)
    • Living cells as sensors (chips for culturing and measuring cell properties (see Kovaks, for example)
  • Chemical Actuators – Electrochemical actuators using polypyrrole.
slide17

Chemical Sensors – many types!

    • Chemireisistors (organic and inorganic)
    • Chemicapacitors
    • Micromachined Calorimeter (combustible gasses or explosive particles)
    • Micro hot plate (R(T) for several materials.
    • Chem FETs
      • Can do the same thing with many ion sensitive membranes.

Pd – Sensitive to hydrogen at 10 ppm

Problem: Drift

slide18

Pumps

    • Mechanical
    • Electrophoretic/Electroosmotic, used in separations of DNA and protein fragments.

V

Neutrals dragged along by mobile ions. Flow nearly constant velocity across channel.

mobile +ions

+ + + + + + +

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immobile -ions

slide19

Optical Transducers

    • MANY types!
    • Overlap between commercial electronics and MEMS.
    • Thermal (Bolometers)
      • Light heats element, causes resistance change.
    • Fabry Perot etalon type devices (interference) for changing reflection. Like microspectrometer shown previously.
    • E-ink displays (MEMS?)
    • Thermocouple
    • Golay cell
      • Light -> heat -> expanding gas -> moves something -> signal.
    • Spectrometers
    • Diffractive sensors.

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preview of a case study or project capacitive accelerometer p 497 senturia
Preview of a case study (or project).Capacitive Accelerometer, p. 497, Senturia.
  • Fabrication Technology – sets limits on structures.
  • Lumped element modeling in different domains.
  • Capacitive transducer/actuator
  • Elasticity, contact mechanics, stiction
  • Structures – springs/beams.
  • Fluids – squeeze film damping
  • Electronics, feedback
  • System dynamics
  • Noise
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