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Media Journals. Do not choose news services. Choose media that is written in the country that you are covering Choose media that isn’t solely online i.e. use the databases that Shevon Desai showed you to read newspapers as they appear in their countries.

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Media journals
Media Journals

  • Do not choose news services.

  • Choose media that is written in the country that you are covering

  • Choose media that isn’t solely online i.e. use the databases that Shevon Desai showed you to read newspapers as they appear in their countries.

  • Think about television or radio broadcasts.

  • Do you all have your media journals created?

  • How many have added media journals to the course website?

  • Make certain you invite (don’t make other students authors—just readers and commenters) the rest of the class to your blogs including me at [email protected] See student ID list on the course website.


Media journals and journalists investigations
Media Journals and Journalists’ Investigations

  • Due this Wednesday at 5 p.m.

  • Please read the journals of your group by class on Thursday. Write a comment on each one.

  • For Thursday Oct. 1—investigate one journalist (assigned by Professor Warner) in your media journal group


Press freedom around the world

Press Freedom Around the World

The Good, the Bad, and the Really Ugly



The pen is mightier than the sword
The pen is mightier than the sword

The telegraph and photography bring the horrors of the Civil War to newspapers

Photography and film show us scenes of carnage during World War 1

Television and newsreels bring us the news of World War 11

The Vietnam War is brought to our living rooms almost in real time with the creation of smaller cameras.

Reporters with cellphones and satellite Internet links brought us real-time coverage of the Iraq War


Giving voice to the voiceless
Giving voice to the voiceless

Who will investigate crime and corruption if journalists don’t?

Who will tell the story of famine, war, poverty, natural disasters if journalists don’t?

Who will question the government if journalists don’t?

Who will determine whether TARP funds are being used properly?

Who will keep watch to see that Guantanamo is closed?


Bringing our world to us
Bringing our world to us

Who would write about the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe?

Human rights violations in China?

The famine and war in Darfur?

Kosovo?

Afghanistan?

Russia?


Immediate implications
Immediate implications

Israel will investigate allegations of the use of white phosphorous in Gaza; the end result both Israel and Hamas have been accused of war crimes.

The price of oil—either up or down—creates the impetus for invasions and reconciliation

We see famine in Africa and send money or call our representatives

We learn of Abu Ghraib or extraordinary renditions and change happens.

We read stories about text messages between a mayor and his chief of staff—and we call for his ouster


Our issues are global issues
Our issues are global issues

Poverty—homelessness in Ann Arbor or Accra

Population—overcrowding in New York or Namibia

Food—safety and security of food supply

Pollution

Energy

Military expenditures

World monetary system



Country by country press freedom index 2008 reporters without borders rsf org
Country by Country Press Freedom Index—2008Reporters without Borders (RSF.org)


For your investigations
For your investigations

Committee to Protect Journalists

Reporters without Borders

Freedom House


Why isn t america no 1
Why isn’t America No. 1

Blogger Josh Wolf jailed for more than 200 days

Sami Al-Haq, Al-Jazeera cameraman, detained at Guantanamo for years

Chauncey Bailey murdered in Oakland

Can you think of other reasons?



Historical imperatives what kind of press does a country want to have
Historical Imperatives: forcesWhat Kind of Press Does a Country Want to Have?

Authoritarian or Revolutionary

  • supports and advances the policies of the government in power so the government can achieve its objectives.

  • Venezuela, Iran, Saudi Arabia

  • “Development” media—used to serve “nation building” and “economic development—

  • African nations and now Palestine and Afghanistan are using “development” idea to promote their governments—not necessarily a free press


Historical imperatives
Historical Imperatives forces

Libertarian or Western

  • The functions of the media are to inform and entertain;

  • government involvement is considered damaging

  • Free market defines who owns the media and what the media covers

  • U.S., Canada, parts of Europe, South Africa

  • Freedom from “seditious libel.”

    • You can criticize your government without fear of retaliation



Communist press
Communist Press forces

  • Functions as a “mouthpiece of the government”—in which the government determines what is “best” for its citizens to know. Press seen as extension of the Communist Party or the government

    • China

    • Cuba

    • North Korea

    • The former USSR


21 st century hybridization
21 forcesst Century Hybridization

Russia—once Communist, opened up under glasnost, democratization of the country, now increasingly returning to an authoritarian or Communist model particularly for media that is seen by Russian citizens. Still has a vibrant ideal of press freedom that has cost a number of journalists their lives

African countries—press freedom is written into their constitutions, but they have no historical imperatives or laws that define what is meant by press freedom. The practice of “developmental press.”

Qatar—an open press seen as a drive toward modernity. But who defines a free press? The U.S.? How would we feel if the Emir of Qatar called asking CNN to tone down its newscasts about the Middle East?


21 st century hybridization1
21 forcesst Century Hybridization

Palestinian media can be considered revolutionary but also developmental

Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez uses television to promote his “revolutionary” ideas. See Frontline documentary “The Hugo Chavez Show.”

Iran continues to advance ideals of its revolution through its press



China s uneasy stance on media
China’s Uneasy Stance on Media forces

  • The Internet

    • Wants to be seen as a technologically forward country, but still needs to control its message to its people.

  • Television

    • Still controls what comes into the country via satellite. But has taken a cue from libertarian media that consumers will want entertainment—at the expense of news coverage

  • Print

    • Thousands of newspapers, magazines, covering crime, sex scandals etc.

    • But information about the government is still handed down from the Propaganda Department. Example, only the government can say when there is a natural disaster or an outbreak of disease, SARS episode , or issues such as the SanLu baby milk contamination


How china and everyone else presents itself to the world
How China (And Everyone Else) Presents Itself to the World forces

Controlling the media is not simply about regulation and restriction, but also about looking outward—controlling and framing the messages that the rest of the world sees.

“How is that a country that invented Hollywood and Madison Avenue has such trouble promoting a positive image of itself overseas?

The view the world receives of the U.S. is filtered through our media—what view is that?


How states control the media external factors
How “States” Control the Media—External factors forces

The state as “patron: state ownership often deemed bad for the media. But in social responsibility models the opposite is true. Consider that NPR, funded in part by the government and “listeners like you” is considered one of the best news sources in the U.S. The BBC, funded through taxes on television sets, considered one of the best news sources in the world.

The state as “censor:” not only in countries such as China, Russia, Iran. But also in the U.S. Example: NHTSA administrator tells her staff no one can speak to the media except her. Both Obama and McCain campaigns refusing to give press conferences.

The state as “actor.” The government as a primary news source—the official word. Coverage may be clouded by our desire to get the “official word.” Examples, Florida election issues, Sept. 11, the Iraq War, Beijing Olympics. But what do we know about what is happening on the ground?

Masseur or manipulator state influencing the media through the way information is presented. Not as noticeable as the state as “actor” but may be more damaging because consumers of media don’t know the state’s role in presenting or framing the news.

Ideologue: Media adopts the definitions of the state; starts talking like the state; “War on Terror.” “Age of Responsibility.” Important to look for this in your media journals.

Conspirator: when the media are too much like the people they cover. Can a predominantly white, middle-class press accurately cover events?


Regulation and restrictions more external factors
Regulation and Restrictions—more external factors forces

U.S.—First Amendment covers us to a point

U.K.—Press is free up to a point, but libel laws are tougher

China—freedom of the press as defined by Communist ideals


Regulations and restrictions continued
Regulations and restrictions continued forces

Regulation and restrictions are driven by each country’s historical imperatives.

Can you instill the idea and practice of “free speech” on countries that aren’t democracies?

Does a free press matter when you don’t have access to clean water or adequate food?



Internal factors that inhibit press freedom
Internal factors that inhibit press freedom forces

The veil of objectivity

Lack of transparency

The race for the story—not necessarily the race for the truth

Self-censorship

Corporatization


Free or not
Free or Not? forces

A free press can of course be good or bad, but certainly without freedom, it will never be anything but bad….Freedom is nothing else but a chance to be better, whereas enslavement is a certainty of the worst

--Albert Camus


The final questions
The final questions: forces

  • government censorship

  • Information a basic human right

  • Embedding expands freedom of press and speech because it gives us insight that we wouldn’t have had.

  • The Internet is a boon to press freedom

  • self-censorship

  • corporate ownership

  • Shouldn’t a country be able to control its messages to its people

  • Don’t “Embeds” lose their objectivity?

  • The Internet is a negative for press freedom

  • State censorship


Questions to ponder
Questions to Ponder forces

Does technology (Internet, satellite television, mobile phones) change who is the “gatekeeper” of news?

Does globalization have the power to create a new world order of information? No longer will countries determine what we need to know—but who will?

Are we redefining national sovereignty with a global media and information network?


Guest lecturer
Guest Lecturer forces

David Hawkins, Al-Jazeera

take a minute to watch Al-Jazeera’s English language channel online by clicking here

Come prepared with three questions for Mr. Hawkins


Media journal exercise wednesday by 5 p m
Media Journal Exercise forces(Wednesday by 5 p.m.)

  • Tell me why you chose this country and this media.

  • Choose any story in your country’s media—preferably a story that is very specific to that country—but one that is also covered by an American news outlet.

    • Example: China’s Daily’s article on global climate change

  • Look at word choice. What words stick out to you—are they biased, subjective?

  • Who is quoted? And why? Are the quotes from different people in each story?

  • Are the statistics the same in each story?

  • Are there eyewitness accounts in one story versus another that depends on what the “official” word is?

  • Overall tone of the story.


Next week s media journal
Next week’s media journal forces

Look for an article in U.S. media that is similar to the article you chose for this week. We will discuss how to write a comparison media journal on Thursday.

Example: New York Times article on global climate change


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