Chapter 3 – The Rise of Islam. Section Notes. Video. Geography and Life in Arabia Origins of Islam Islamic Beliefs and Practices. Islamic Traditions and the World Today. Maps. History Close-up. Arabia, 570 Islam in Arabia, 632. Nomads and Townspeople. Images.
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Geography and Life in Arabia
Origins of Islam
Islamic Beliefs and Practices
Islamic Traditions and the World Today
Islam in Arabia, 632
Nomads and Townspeople
Time Line: Three Religions
The Five Pillars of Islam
Sources of Islamic Beliefs
Chapter 3 Visual Summary
Arabia’s location has shaped its physical features.Main Idea 1: Arabia is mostly a desert land.
Sedentary people settled in oases, where they could farm. These settlements often became towns.
Towns became centers of trade. Many had a souk, a market or bazaar, where goods were traded.Main Idea 2: Two ways of life—nomadic and sedentary—developed in the desert.
Muslims believe that God spoke to Muhammad through an angel and made him a prophet.
The messages he received were the basis for Islam and were collected in the holy book of Islam called the Qur’an.Main Idea 1: Muhammad became a prophet and introduced a religion called Islam in Arabia.
Muslims also recognize many of the same prophets as Christians and Jews.
Muslims don’t believe that Jesus was the son of God.
Arabs were used to worshipping many gods, so many of them rejected Muhammad’s teachings.
Muhammad said the rich and poor should be equal. Many wealthy merchants did not like this idea.Main Idea 2: Muhammad’s teachings had similarities to Judaism and Christianity, but they also presented new ideas.
Rulers of Mecca began to threaten Muhammad and his followers with violence as Islam started to influence more people.
Muhammad left Mecca and went to Medina.
This departure became known in Muslim history as the hegira, or journey.
Islam thrived in Medina, and other Arab tribes in the region accepted Islam.Main Idea 3: Islam spread in Arabia afterbeing rejected at first.
The Qur’an sets out guidelines for moral behavior, acts of worship, and rules for social life
Muslims were encouraged to free slaves.
Women could own property, earn money, and receive an education.
The Qur’an discusses Jihad, whichmeans to make an effort, or to struggle. Jihad refers to the inner struggle people go through in their effort to obey God and behave according to Islamic ways.
Jihad can also mean the struggle to defend the Muslim community, or historically, to convert people to Islam. The word has also been translated as “holy war.”Main Idea 1: The Qur’an guides Muslims’ lives.
The Sunnah provides a model for the duties and way of life expected of Muslims.
The first duties of a Muslim are known as the Five Pillars of Islam, which are five acts of worship required of all Muslims.Main Idea 2: The Sunnah tells Muslims of important duties expected of them.
Praying five times a day
Giving to the poor and needy
Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan
Traveling to Mecca at least once on a hajjThe Five Pillars of Islam
Shariah is a system based on Islamic sources and human reason that judges the rightness of actions taken.Main Idea 3:Islamic law is based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah.
Islamic Traditions and the World Today
Early Muslim Conquests
Trade in the Muslim World
The City of Córdoba
The Ottoman Empire
The Safavid Empire
The Mughal Empire
The Blue Mosque
Chapter 4 Visual Summary
The City of Córdoba
Islamic Achievements (continued)
Caliphs were not religious leaders, but political and military leaders.
Abu Bakr directed a series of battles against Arab tribes who did not follow Muhammad’s teachings.Main Idea 1: Muslim armies conquered many lands into which Islam slowly spread.
The Muslim armies united Arabia, then defeated the Persian and Byzantine empires.
After years of fighting Muslim armies, many Berbers, a native people of North Africa, converted to Islam and joined forces with the Arabs.
A combined Berber and Arab army invaded Spain and conquered it in AD 711.Growth of the Empire
Islam spread to India, Africa, Malaysia, and Indonesia.
Trade also brought new products to Muslim lands and made many people rich.
Travelers learned how to make paper from the Chinese.
Merchants brought crops of cotton, rice, and oranges from India, China, and Southeast Asia.
Muslim merchants set up trade businesses in Africa.Main Idea 2:Trade helped Islam spread into new areas.
Language and religion helped unify many groups that became part of the Islamic world.
Muslims generally practiced tolerance, or acceptance, with regard to these people.
Jews and Christians in particular could keep their beliefs.Main Idea 3: A mix of cultures was one result of Islam’s spread.
Capital of Islamic Empire
Located near land and water trade routes
Built hospitals, observatories, and a library that was used as a university
Capital of what is now Spain
Strong economy based on agriculture and trade
By the AD 900s, was the largest and most advanced city in Europe
Great center of learning
Also a center of Jewish cultureMain Idea 4: Islamic influence encouraged the growth of cities.
They had new gunpowder weapons, such as the cannon.
Mehmed II and Suleyman I led conquests that turned the Ottomans into a world power.
During Suleyman’s rule, the Ottoman Empire reached its cultural peak.
Poets wrote beautiful works.
Architects turned Istanbul into a Muslim city.
Women had limited freedom.Main Idea 1:Muslims ruled the Ottoman Empire, which was a political and cultural force.
Ottoman society was divided into two classes.
Judges and people who advised the sultan were part of the ruling class.
Those who didn’t fit into the ruling class made up the other class. Many of these were Christians or Jews from lands the Ottomans had conquered.Ottoman Government and Society
Islam split into two groups.
The Shia thought that only members of Muhammad’s family could become caliphs.
The Sunni thought it did not matter as long as they were good Muslims and strong leaders.Main Idea 2: The Safavid Empire blended Persian cultural traditions with Shia Islam.
He made Shiism the official religion of the empire.
The Safavids blended Persian and Muslim traditions.
The manufacturing of traditional products, such as handwoven carpets, silk, and velvet, was encouraged.The Safavid Empire
Akbar’s tolerant policies helped unify the empire.
A conflict of cultures led to the end of this empire, but resulted in a culture unique to the Mughal Empire.
Cultures that blended in the empire included
IndiansMain Idea 3:The Mughal Empire in India left an impressive cultural heritage.
Many ancient writings were translated into Arabic.Main Idea 1: Muslim scholars made advances in various fields of science and philosophy.
Geographers made more accurate maps than before, mostly due to the contributions of al-Idrisi.
The Muslim mathematician al-Khwarizmi laid the foundations for modern algebra.
They made improvements to the astrolabe, which the Greeks had invented to chart the positions of the stars.Cultural Achievements
The Muslims’ greatest scientific achievements may have come in medicine.
A doctor named Ar-Razi discovered how to diagnose and treat the deadly disease smallpox.
The Muslim philosophy focused on spiritual issues, which led to a movement called Sufism.
Sufism teaches that people can find God’s love by having a personal relationship with God.More Scholarly Advances
Two forms of literature were popular in the Muslim world—poetry and short stories.
The greatest architectural achievements were mosques. They often had a dome and minarets—narrow towers from which Muslims are called to prayer.
Patrons, or sponsors, used their wealth to pay for elaborately decorated mosques.Main Idea 2:Islam influenced styles of literature and the arts.