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PAKISTAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE. LEADERSHIP IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT. SYED ANWAR-UL-HASAN BOKHARI ACTING GENERAL MANAGER CIVIL SERVICE REFORM UNIT. FEBRUARY 24, 2005. WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?.

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PAKISTAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE

LEADERSHIP IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

SYED ANWAR-UL-HASAN BOKHARI

ACTING GENERAL MANAGER

CIVIL SERVICE REFORM UNIT

FEBRUARY 24, 2005


What is leadership l.jpg
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?

“BUSINESS LEADER IS AN INDIVIDUAL WHO CAN CREATE AND COMMUNICATE A VISION, BRING PASSION TO THE VISION, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME RELENTLESSLY PURSUE THE VISION TO COMPLETENESS. GOOD LEADERS ARE OPEN. THEY GO UP, DOWN AND AROUND THEIR ORGANIZATION TO REACH PEOPLE. THEY'RE INFORMAL. THEY'RE STRAIGHT WITH PEOPLE AND THEY NEVER GET BORED TELLING THEIR STORY”.

(JACK WELCH)

"LEADERSHIP IS THE ART OF ACCOMPLISHING MORE THAN THE SCIENCE OF MANAGEMENT SAYS IS POSSIBLE."

(COLIN POWELL)


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A LEADER IS INTERPRETED AS SOMEONE WHO SETS DIRECTION AND INFLUENCES PEOPLE TO FOLLOW THAT DIRECTION. HE SETS DIRECTION BY DEVELOPING A CLEAR VISION AND MISSION, AND CONDUCTING PLANNING THAT DETERMINES THE GOALS NEEDED TO ACHIEVE THE VISION AND MISSION. HE MOTIVATES BY USING A VARIETY OF METHODS, INCLUDING FACILITATION, COACHING, MENTORING, DIRECTING, DELEGATING, ETC.


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  • LEADERSHIP IS A SOCIAL INFLUENCE PROCESS IN WHICH THE LEADER SEEKS THE VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION OF SUBORDINATES IN AN EFFORT TO REACH ORGANIZATION OBJECTIVES.

  • TO ENCOURAGE VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION, LEADERS SUPPLEMENT ANY AUTHORITY AND POWER THEY MAY POSSESS WITH THEIR PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES AND SOCIAL SKILLS.


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BASES OF POWER SEEKS THE VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION OF SUBORDINATES IN AN EFFORT TO REACH ORGANIZATION OBJECTIVES.

  • REWARD POWER

  • COERCIVE POWER

  • LEGITIMATE POWER

  • REFERENT POWER

  • EXPERT POWER


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LEADERSHIP VERSUS MANAGEMENT SEEKS THE VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION OF SUBORDINATES IN AN EFFORT TO REACH ORGANIZATION OBJECTIVES.

  • MANAGERS PROVIDE RESOURCES…

    LEADERS PROVIDE VISION AND INFLUENCE

  • MANAGEMENT WORKS WITHIN THE PARADIGM.

    LEADERSHIP CREATES NEW PARADIGMS.

  • MANAGEMENT WORKS WITHIN THE SYSTEM.

    LEADERSHIP WORKS ON THE SYSTEM.

  • MANGERS MANAGE 'THINGS' BUT

    LEADERS LEAD ‘PEOPLE’

  • MANAGEMENT IS PROBLEM-ORIENTED

    LEADERSHIP IS OPPORTUNITY ORIENTED

  • MANAGEMENT HAS NOT MEANING APART FROM ITS GOALS

    LEADERSHIP IS AN EVOLUTION OF ONESELF THROUGH A CONSTANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS


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  • RATIONALLY ANALYZES A SITUATION, DEVELOPING SYSTEMATIC SELECTION OF GOALS AND PURPOSES (WHAT IS TO BE DONE)

    INTUITIVE, MYSTICAL UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE.

  • PERPETUATES GROUP CONFLICTS.

    WORKS TO DEVELOP HARMONIOUS INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS.

  • BECOMES ANXIOUS WHEN THERE IS RELATIVE DISORDER.

    WORKS BEST WHEN THINGS ARE SOMEWHAT DISORDERLY OR CHAOTIC.

  • USES THEIR ACCUMULATION OF COLLECTIVE EXPERIENCE TO GET WHERE THEY ARE GOING.

    OFTEN JUMPS TO CONCLUSIONS, WITHOUT A LOGICAL PROGRESSION OF THOUGHTS OR FACTS.

  • INNOVATES BY 'TINKERING' WITH EXISTING PROCESSES.

    INNOVATES THROUGH FLASHES OF INSIGHT OR INTUITION.


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  • SEES THE WORLD AS RELATIVELY IMPERSONAL AND STATIC (BLACK AND WHITE).

    SEES THE WORLD AS FULL OF COLOR, AND CONSTANTLY BLENDING INTO NEW COLORS AND SHAPES.

  • INFLUENCES PEOPLE THROUGH THE USE OF LOGIC, FACTS AND REASON.

    INFLUENCES PEOPLE THROUGH ALTERING MOODS, EVOKING IMAGES AND EXPECTATION.

  • VIEWS WORK AS AN ENABLING PROCESS, INVOLVING A COMBINATION OF IDEAS, SKILLS, TIMING AND PEOPLE.

    VIEWS WORK AS DEVELOPING FRESH APPROACHES TO OLD PROBLEMS, OR FINDING NEW OPTIONS FOR OLD ISSUES.

  • VIEWS WORK AS SOMETHING THAT MUST BE DONE OR TOLERATED.

    VIEWS WORK AS SOMETHING CHALLENGING AND EXCITING.

  • HAS A LOW LEVEL OF EMOTIONAL INVOLVEMENT IN THEIR WORK.

    TAKES IN EMOTIONAL SIGNALS FROM OTHERS, MAKING THEM MEAN SOMETHING IN THE RELATIONSHIP WITH AN INDIVIDUAL; OFTEN PASSIONATE ABOUT THEIR WORK.


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  • FOCUSES ON AND WHITE).HOW THINGS NEED TO BE DONE.

    FOCUSES ON WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE, LEAVING DECISIONS TO PEOPLE INVOLVED.

  • FOCUSES ATTENTION ON PROCEDURE.

    FOCUSES ON THE DECISION TO BE MADE.

  • ONCE­ BORN; THEIR LIVES HAVE BEEN MOST STRAIGHT­FORWARD AND PREDICTABLE, TAKES THINGS FOR GRANTED.

    TWICE ­BORN; THEIR LIVES HAVE NOT ALWAYS BEEN EASY, OFTEN MARKED BY SOME STRUGGLE TO ATTAIN A SENSE OF ORDER; DOES NOT TAKE THINGS FOR GRANTED.

  • SEES THEMSELVES AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THEIR SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND SOCIAL STANDARD.

  • SEES THEMSELVES AS A CONSTANTLY EVOLVING HUMAN BEING, FOCUSING MORE INWARDLY THAN OUTWARDLY.

  • FEELS THREATENED BY OPEN CHALLENGES TO THEIR IDEAS, ARE TROUBLED BY AGGRESSIVENESS.

    ABLE TO TOLERATE AGGRESSIVE INTERCHANGES, ENCOURAGING EMOTIONAL INVOLVEMENT WITH OTHERS.



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STYLES OF LEADERSHIP AND WHITE).

  • AUTHORITARIAN

  • COERCIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE

  • AFFILIATIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE

  • DEMOCRATIC / PARTICIPATORY

  • PACE SETTING LEADERSHIP STYLE

  • COACHING LEADERSHIP STYLE

  • LAISSEZ-FAIRE


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AUTHORITARIAN STYLE AND WHITE).

  • LEADER RETAINS ALL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY

  • LEADER ASSIGNS PEOPLE TO CLEARLY DEFINED TASKS.

  • PRIMARILY A DOWNWARD FLOW OF COMMUNICATION

  • STRESSES PROMPT, ORDERLY, AND PREDICTABLE PERFORMANCE.

  • TENDS TO STIFLE INDIVIDUAL INITITIVE.


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COERCIVE STYLE AND WHITE).

  • DEMANDS IMMEDIATE COMPLIANCE

  • “DO WHAT I TELL YOU”

  • DRIVE TO ACHIEVE, INITIATE, SELF-CONTROL

  • IN A CRISIS, TO KICK START A TURNAROUND, OR WITH PROBLEM EMPLOYEES

  • NEGATIVE


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AFFILIATIVE STYLE AND WHITE).

  • CREATES HARMONY AND BUILDS EMOTIONAL BONDS

  • “PEOPLE COME FIRST”

  • EMPATHY, BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS, COMMUNICATION

  • TO HEAL RIFTS IN A TEAM OR TO MOTIVATE PEOPLE DURING STRESSFUL CIRCUMSTANCES

  • POSITIVE


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DEMOCRATIC AND WHITE).

  • LEADER DELEGATES A GREAT DEAL OF AUTHORITY WHILE RETAINING ULTIMATE RESPONSIBILITY.

  • WORK IS DIVIDED AND ASSIGNED ON THE BASIS OF PARTICIPATORY DECISION MAKING.

  • ACTIVE TWO-WAY FLOW OF UPWARD AND DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION.

  • ENHANCES PERSONAL COMMITMENT THROUGH PARTICIPATION.

  • DEMOCRATIC PROCESS IS TIME CONSUMING.


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PACE SETTING STYLE AND WHITE).

  • Sets high standard of performance

  • “Do as I do, now”

  • Conscientiousness, drive to achieve, initiative

  • To get quick results from a highly motivated and competent team 

  • Negative


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COACHING STYLE AND WHITE).

  • DEVELOPS PEOPLE FOR THE FUTURE

  • “TRY THIS”

  • DEVELOPING OTHERS, EMPATHY, SELF-AWARENESS 

  • TO HELP EMPLOYEE IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OR DEVELOP LONG-TERM STRENGTHS 

  • POSITIVE


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LAISSEZ FAIRE STYLE AND WHITE).

  • LEADER DENIES RESPONSIBILITY AND ABDICATES AUTHORITY TO GROUP.

  • GROUP MEMBERS ARE TOLD TO WORK THINGS OUT THEMSELVES AND DO THE BEST THEY CAN.

  • PRIMARILY HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION AMOUNG PEERS.

  • PERMITS SELF-STARTERS TO DO THINGS AS THEY SEE FIT WITHOUT LEADER INTERFERENCE.

  • GROUP MAY DRIFT AIMLESSLY IN THE ABSENCE OF DIRECTION FROM LEADER.


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TRAIT PROFILE OF LEADERS AND WHITE).

  • MANAGEMENT ATTRACTION – A COMBINATION OF VISION AND STRONG PERSONAL COMMITMENT ATTRACTS OTHERS AND INSPIRES THEM TO SEEK NEW HIGHTS.

  • MANAGEMENT OF MEANING – SUCCESSFUL LEADERS POSSESS EXCEPTIONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS THAT SERVE TO ALIGN OTHERS WITH THEIR CAUSE.

  • MANAGEMENT OF TRUST – A CLEAR AND CONSTANT FOCUS ON A CENTRAL PURPOSE BUILDS TRUST BY LETTING OTHERS KNOW WHERE THE LEADER STAND.

  • MANAGEMENT OF SELF – SUCCESSFUL LEADERS NURTURE THEIR STRENGTHS AND LEARN FROM THEIR MISTAKES. GENERALLY REJECT THE IDEA OF FAILURE.


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FOUR TRAITS OF SUCCESSFUL LEADERS AND WHITE).

  • INTELLIGENCE

  • MATURITY AND BREADTH – EMOTIONALLY MATURE AND HAVE A BROAD RANGE OF INTERESTS.

  • INNER MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT DRIVE.

  • EMPLOYEE-CENTRED.


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KEYS TO EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND WHITE).

  • APPROPRIATE TECHNICAL EXPERTISE SUPPORTED BY A STRONG FOUNDATION OF GENERAL KNOWLEDGE.

  • A MASTERY OF THE LANGUAGE.

  • A DESIRE TO GET THINGS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH PEOPLE.

  • A WILLINGNESS TO BE FLEXIBLE WHEN DEALING WITH INDIVIDUALS.

  • A MENTOR WHO CAN URGE, DIRECT, AND COACH IN ADDITION TO PROVIDING NECESSARY FEEDBACK.

  • AN ABILITY TO STEP BACK FROM A DISORDERLY ARRAY OF DETAILS AND SEE THINGS IN PERSPECTIVE.

  • A KNACK FOR BEING IN THE RIGHT PLACE AT THE RIGHT TIME.


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LEADERSHIP IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND WHITE).

  • ACT PROFESSIONALLY

  • USE GOOD JUDGEMENT

  • TAKE THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES SERIOUSLY

  • COLLABORATE WELL WITH OTHER EMPOWERED PEOPLE

  • TAKE CALCULATED RISKS

  • GIVE HONEST FEEDBACK

  • BEHAVE ETHICALLY

  • FOLLOW UP AND FOLLOW THROUGH

  • HAVE A PASSION FOR LEARNING ESPECIALLY ABOUT THEMSELVES

  • SEE MISTAKES AS NATURAL PART OF LEARNING

  • AREN’T EASILY DISCOURAGED

  • ARE COMMITTED TO THE SUCCESS OF THE PROJECT


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CATEGORY OF PROJECT STAFF AND WHITE).

  • INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE ALREADY EMPOWERED

  • IDIVIDUALS WHO NEED OR WANT HELP TO FIND THEIR POWER

  • INDIVIDUALS WHO HAVE NO INTEREST OR DESIRE WHATSOEVER TO ACT POWERFULLY OR RESPONSIBLY, EVEN IF THEY CAN.


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LEADING PEOPLE AND WHITE).

  • MAKE HUMAN CONTACT WITH THEM

  • LEAVE THEM INCHARGE OF THEMSELVES

  • GUIDE RATHER COMMAND THEIR EXPLORATION WITH THEIR FULL PERMISSION

  • BECOME A SUPPORTIVE PARTNER IN THEIR LEARNING PROCESS

  • HELP THEM LEARN THINGS ABOUT THEMSELVES THAT PERHAPS CAN BE LEARNED IN NO OTHER WAY

  • FOLLOW THEIR ENERGY

  • ENHANCE THEIR SELF ESTEEM

  • ENCOURAGE THEIR CREATIVITY


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ESSENCE OF LEADERSHIP AND WHITE).

  • THE ESSENCE OF LEADING OTHER LIES IN WORKING WITH INDIVIDUALS TO HELP THEM TAP INTO THEIR OWN POWER AND CREATING THE CONDITIONS AND ENVIRONMENT WHERE THEY CAN WORK MOST EFFECTIVELY.

  • IT INVOLVES THREE ABILITIES: -

    • THE ABILITY TO ANTICIPATE THAT EACH INDIVIDUAL MAY NEED SOMETHING DIFFERENT TO DO HIS OR HER BEST WORK.

    • THE ABILITY TO WORK WITH EACH INDIVIDUAL IN SUCH A WAY AS TO MEET HIM WHERE HE IS, IN TERMS OF WHAT HE NEEDS TO DO HIS OR HER BEST WORK.

    • THE ABILITY TO MAKE EXPILICIT AGREEMENT ABOUT WHAT ASSISTANCE YOU WILL PROVIDE AND WHAT HE WILL DO TO GET HIS NEEDS.


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LEADERSHIP TRAITS AND WHITE).(KIRKPATRICK AND LOCKE 1991)

  • DRIVE, ACHIEVE, ENERGY, TENACITY, INITIATIVE.

  • LEADERSHIP MOTIVATION

  • HONESTY AND INTEGRITY

  • SELF-CONFIDENCE (INCLUDING EMOTIONAL STABILITY)

  • COGNITIVE ABILITY

  • KNOWLEDGE OF HE BUSINESS

  • CHARISMA, CREATIVITY/ORIGINALITY, FLEXIBILITY


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LEADERSHIP TRAITS AND WHITE).(STOGDILL 1974)

  • ADAPTABILITY

  • ADJUSTMENT (NORMALITY)

  • AGGRESSIVENESS AND ASSERTIVENESS

  • DOMINANCE

  • EMOTIONAL BALANCE AND CONTROL

  • INDEPENDENCE (NON-CONFORMITY)

  • ORIGINALITY AND CREATIVITY

  • PERSONAL INTEGRITY (ETHICAL CONDUCT)

  • SELF-CONFIDENCE


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CONCLUSIONS ON LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT AND WHITE).

  • NO ONE BEST WAY TO LEAD AND MANAGE

  • COMBINATION AND CUSTOMIZATION PERHAPS APPROACH

    FIVE BASIC APPROACHES OR STYLE

  • STRATEGIC APPROACH

  • HUMAN ASSEST APPROACH

  • EXPERTISE APPROACH

  • BOX APPROACH

  • CHANGE APPROACH


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FORCES TO BE EXAMINED BY THE LEADERS AND WHITE).

  • FORCES IN THE LEADER

    • THE LEADER’S VALUE SYSTEM

    • LEADERSHIP INCLINATION

    • TOLERANCE OF AMBIGUITY

    • ASSESSMENT OF OWN AND THE GROUP’S IMPORTANCE

  • FORCES OF SUBORDINATE GROUP

    • NEED FOR DEPENDENCY OR INDEPENDENCE

    • READINESS TO ASSUME RESPNSIBILITY

    • INTEREST IN THE PROBLEM

    • IDENTIFICATION WITH ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS

    • KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE

    • TOLERANCE OF AMBIGUITY

    • EXPECTATIONS


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  • FORCES IN THE SITUATION AND WHITE).

    • TYPE OF ORGANIZATION

    • NATURE OF THE TASK

    • PRESSURE OF TIME

    • GENERAL SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MILIEU


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THANK YOU AND WHITE).

CONTACT:

CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS UNIT

(ESTABLISHMENT DIVISION)

Block-B, II Floor, Benevolent Fund Building,

Islamabad.

Tele: 9217152

EMAIL: [email protected]

WEB: www.policy.hu/bokhari


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