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PAKISTAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE. LEADERSHIP IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT. SYED ANWAR-UL-HASAN BOKHARI ACTING GENERAL MANAGER CIVIL SERVICE REFORM UNIT. FEBRUARY 24, 2005. WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?.

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leadership in project management

PAKISTAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE

LEADERSHIP IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

SYED ANWAR-UL-HASAN BOKHARI

ACTING GENERAL MANAGER

CIVIL SERVICE REFORM UNIT

FEBRUARY 24, 2005

what is leadership
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?

“BUSINESS LEADER IS AN INDIVIDUAL WHO CAN CREATE AND COMMUNICATE A VISION, BRING PASSION TO THE VISION, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME RELENTLESSLY PURSUE THE VISION TO COMPLETENESS. GOOD LEADERS ARE OPEN. THEY GO UP, DOWN AND AROUND THEIR ORGANIZATION TO REACH PEOPLE. THEY\'RE INFORMAL. THEY\'RE STRAIGHT WITH PEOPLE AND THEY NEVER GET BORED TELLING THEIR STORY”.

(JACK WELCH)

"LEADERSHIP IS THE ART OF ACCOMPLISHING MORE THAN THE SCIENCE OF MANAGEMENT SAYS IS POSSIBLE."

(COLIN POWELL)

slide3
A LEADER IS INTERPRETED AS SOMEONE WHO SETS DIRECTION AND INFLUENCES PEOPLE TO FOLLOW THAT DIRECTION. HE SETS DIRECTION BY DEVELOPING A CLEAR VISION AND MISSION, AND CONDUCTING PLANNING THAT DETERMINES THE GOALS NEEDED TO ACHIEVE THE VISION AND MISSION. HE MOTIVATES BY USING A VARIETY OF METHODS, INCLUDING FACILITATION, COACHING, MENTORING, DIRECTING, DELEGATING, ETC.
slide4
LEADERSHIP IS A SOCIAL INFLUENCE PROCESS IN WHICH THE LEADER SEEKS THE VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION OF SUBORDINATES IN AN EFFORT TO REACH ORGANIZATION OBJECTIVES.
  • TO ENCOURAGE VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION, LEADERS SUPPLEMENT ANY AUTHORITY AND POWER THEY MAY POSSESS WITH THEIR PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES AND SOCIAL SKILLS.
bases of power
BASES OF POWER
  • REWARD POWER
  • COERCIVE POWER
  • LEGITIMATE POWER
  • REFERENT POWER
  • EXPERT POWER
leadership versus management
LEADERSHIP VERSUS MANAGEMENT
  • MANAGERS PROVIDE RESOURCES…

LEADERS PROVIDE VISION AND INFLUENCE

  • MANAGEMENT WORKS WITHIN THE PARADIGM.

LEADERSHIP CREATES NEW PARADIGMS.

  • MANAGEMENT WORKS WITHIN THE SYSTEM.

LEADERSHIP WORKS ON THE SYSTEM.

  • MANGERS MANAGE \'THINGS\' BUT

LEADERS LEAD ‘PEOPLE’

  • MANAGEMENT IS PROBLEM-ORIENTED

LEADERSHIP IS OPPORTUNITY ORIENTED

  • MANAGEMENT HAS NOT MEANING APART FROM ITS GOALS

LEADERSHIP IS AN EVOLUTION OF ONESELF THROUGH A CONSTANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

slide7
RATIONALLY ANALYZES A SITUATION, DEVELOPING SYSTEMATIC SELECTION OF GOALS AND PURPOSES (WHAT IS TO BE DONE)

INTUITIVE, MYSTICAL UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE.

  • PERPETUATES GROUP CONFLICTS.

WORKS TO DEVELOP HARMONIOUS INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS.

  • BECOMES ANXIOUS WHEN THERE IS RELATIVE DISORDER.

WORKS BEST WHEN THINGS ARE SOMEWHAT DISORDERLY OR CHAOTIC.

  • USES THEIR ACCUMULATION OF COLLECTIVE EXPERIENCE TO GET WHERE THEY ARE GOING.

OFTEN JUMPS TO CONCLUSIONS, WITHOUT A LOGICAL PROGRESSION OF THOUGHTS OR FACTS.

  • INNOVATES BY \'TINKERING\' WITH EXISTING PROCESSES.

INNOVATES THROUGH FLASHES OF INSIGHT OR INTUITION.

slide8
SEES THE WORLD AS RELATIVELY IMPERSONAL AND STATIC (BLACK AND WHITE).

SEES THE WORLD AS FULL OF COLOR, AND CONSTANTLY BLENDING INTO NEW COLORS AND SHAPES.

  • INFLUENCES PEOPLE THROUGH THE USE OF LOGIC, FACTS AND REASON.

INFLUENCES PEOPLE THROUGH ALTERING MOODS, EVOKING IMAGES AND EXPECTATION.

  • VIEWS WORK AS AN ENABLING PROCESS, INVOLVING A COMBINATION OF IDEAS, SKILLS, TIMING AND PEOPLE.

VIEWS WORK AS DEVELOPING FRESH APPROACHES TO OLD PROBLEMS, OR FINDING NEW OPTIONS FOR OLD ISSUES.

  • VIEWS WORK AS SOMETHING THAT MUST BE DONE OR TOLERATED.

VIEWS WORK AS SOMETHING CHALLENGING AND EXCITING.

  • HAS A LOW LEVEL OF EMOTIONAL INVOLVEMENT IN THEIR WORK.

TAKES IN EMOTIONAL SIGNALS FROM OTHERS, MAKING THEM MEAN SOMETHING IN THE RELATIONSHIP WITH AN INDIVIDUAL; OFTEN PASSIONATE ABOUT THEIR WORK.

slide9
FOCUSES ON HOW THINGS NEED TO BE DONE.

FOCUSES ON WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE, LEAVING DECISIONS TO PEOPLE INVOLVED.

  • FOCUSES ATTENTION ON PROCEDURE.

FOCUSES ON THE DECISION TO BE MADE.

  • ONCE­ BORN; THEIR LIVES HAVE BEEN MOST STRAIGHT­FORWARD AND PREDICTABLE, TAKES THINGS FOR GRANTED.

TWICE ­BORN; THEIR LIVES HAVE NOT ALWAYS BEEN EASY, OFTEN MARKED BY SOME STRUGGLE TO ATTAIN A SENSE OF ORDER; DOES NOT TAKE THINGS FOR GRANTED.

  • SEES THEMSELVES AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THEIR SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND SOCIAL STANDARD.
  • SEES THEMSELVES AS A CONSTANTLY EVOLVING HUMAN BEING, FOCUSING MORE INWARDLY THAN OUTWARDLY.
  • FEELS THREATENED BY OPEN CHALLENGES TO THEIR IDEAS, ARE TROUBLED BY AGGRESSIVENESS.

ABLE TO TOLERATE AGGRESSIVE INTERCHANGES, ENCOURAGING EMOTIONAL INVOLVEMENT WITH OTHERS.

styles of leadership
STYLES OF LEADERSHIP
  • AUTHORITARIAN
  • COERCIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE
  • AFFILIATIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE
  • DEMOCRATIC / PARTICIPATORY
  • PACE SETTING LEADERSHIP STYLE
  • COACHING LEADERSHIP STYLE
  • LAISSEZ-FAIRE
authoritarian style
AUTHORITARIAN STYLE
  • LEADER RETAINS ALL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY
  • LEADER ASSIGNS PEOPLE TO CLEARLY DEFINED TASKS.
  • PRIMARILY A DOWNWARD FLOW OF COMMUNICATION
  • STRESSES PROMPT, ORDERLY, AND PREDICTABLE PERFORMANCE.
  • TENDS TO STIFLE INDIVIDUAL INITITIVE.
coercive style
COERCIVE STYLE
  • DEMANDS IMMEDIATE COMPLIANCE
  • “DO WHAT I TELL YOU”
  • DRIVE TO ACHIEVE, INITIATE, SELF-CONTROL
  • IN A CRISIS, TO KICK START A TURNAROUND, OR WITH PROBLEM EMPLOYEES
  • NEGATIVE
affiliative style
AFFILIATIVE STYLE
  • CREATES HARMONY AND BUILDS EMOTIONAL BONDS
  • “PEOPLE COME FIRST”
  • EMPATHY, BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS, COMMUNICATION
  • TO HEAL RIFTS IN A TEAM OR TO MOTIVATE PEOPLE DURING STRESSFUL CIRCUMSTANCES
  • POSITIVE
democratic
DEMOCRATIC
  • LEADER DELEGATES A GREAT DEAL OF AUTHORITY WHILE RETAINING ULTIMATE RESPONSIBILITY.
  • WORK IS DIVIDED AND ASSIGNED ON THE BASIS OF PARTICIPATORY DECISION MAKING.
  • ACTIVE TWO-WAY FLOW OF UPWARD AND DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION.
  • ENHANCES PERSONAL COMMITMENT THROUGH PARTICIPATION.
  • DEMOCRATIC PROCESS IS TIME CONSUMING.
pace setting style
PACE SETTING STYLE
  • Sets high standard of performance
  • “Do as I do, now”
  • Conscientiousness, drive to achieve, initiative
  • To get quick results from a highly motivated and competent team 
  • Negative
coaching style
COACHING STYLE
  • DEVELOPS PEOPLE FOR THE FUTURE
  • “TRY THIS”
  • DEVELOPING OTHERS, EMPATHY, SELF-AWARENESS 
  • TO HELP EMPLOYEE IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OR DEVELOP LONG-TERM STRENGTHS 
  • POSITIVE
laissez faire style
LAISSEZ FAIRE STYLE
  • LEADER DENIES RESPONSIBILITY AND ABDICATES AUTHORITY TO GROUP.
  • GROUP MEMBERS ARE TOLD TO WORK THINGS OUT THEMSELVES AND DO THE BEST THEY CAN.
  • PRIMARILY HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION AMOUNG PEERS.
  • PERMITS SELF-STARTERS TO DO THINGS AS THEY SEE FIT WITHOUT LEADER INTERFERENCE.
  • GROUP MAY DRIFT AIMLESSLY IN THE ABSENCE OF DIRECTION FROM LEADER.
trait profile of leaders
TRAIT PROFILE OF LEADERS
  • MANAGEMENT ATTRACTION – A COMBINATION OF VISION AND STRONG PERSONAL COMMITMENT ATTRACTS OTHERS AND INSPIRES THEM TO SEEK NEW HIGHTS.
  • MANAGEMENT OF MEANING – SUCCESSFUL LEADERS POSSESS EXCEPTIONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS THAT SERVE TO ALIGN OTHERS WITH THEIR CAUSE.
  • MANAGEMENT OF TRUST – A CLEAR AND CONSTANT FOCUS ON A CENTRAL PURPOSE BUILDS TRUST BY LETTING OTHERS KNOW WHERE THE LEADER STAND.
  • MANAGEMENT OF SELF – SUCCESSFUL LEADERS NURTURE THEIR STRENGTHS AND LEARN FROM THEIR MISTAKES. GENERALLY REJECT THE IDEA OF FAILURE.
four traits of successful leaders
FOUR TRAITS OF SUCCESSFUL LEADERS
  • INTELLIGENCE
  • MATURITY AND BREADTH – EMOTIONALLY MATURE AND HAVE A BROAD RANGE OF INTERESTS.
  • INNER MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT DRIVE.
  • EMPLOYEE-CENTRED.
keys to effective leadership
KEYS TO EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP
  • APPROPRIATE TECHNICAL EXPERTISE SUPPORTED BY A STRONG FOUNDATION OF GENERAL KNOWLEDGE.
  • A MASTERY OF THE LANGUAGE.
  • A DESIRE TO GET THINGS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH PEOPLE.
  • A WILLINGNESS TO BE FLEXIBLE WHEN DEALING WITH INDIVIDUALS.
  • A MENTOR WHO CAN URGE, DIRECT, AND COACH IN ADDITION TO PROVIDING NECESSARY FEEDBACK.
  • AN ABILITY TO STEP BACK FROM A DISORDERLY ARRAY OF DETAILS AND SEE THINGS IN PERSPECTIVE.
  • A KNACK FOR BEING IN THE RIGHT PLACE AT THE RIGHT TIME.
leadership in project management23
LEADERSHIP IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
  • ACT PROFESSIONALLY
  • USE GOOD JUDGEMENT
  • TAKE THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES SERIOUSLY
  • COLLABORATE WELL WITH OTHER EMPOWERED PEOPLE
  • TAKE CALCULATED RISKS
  • GIVE HONEST FEEDBACK
  • BEHAVE ETHICALLY
  • FOLLOW UP AND FOLLOW THROUGH
  • HAVE A PASSION FOR LEARNING ESPECIALLY ABOUT THEMSELVES
  • SEE MISTAKES AS NATURAL PART OF LEARNING
  • AREN’T EASILY DISCOURAGED
  • ARE COMMITTED TO THE SUCCESS OF THE PROJECT
category of project staff
CATEGORY OF PROJECT STAFF
  • INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE ALREADY EMPOWERED
  • IDIVIDUALS WHO NEED OR WANT HELP TO FIND THEIR POWER
  • INDIVIDUALS WHO HAVE NO INTEREST OR DESIRE WHATSOEVER TO ACT POWERFULLY OR RESPONSIBLY, EVEN IF THEY CAN.
leading people
LEADING PEOPLE
  • MAKE HUMAN CONTACT WITH THEM
  • LEAVE THEM INCHARGE OF THEMSELVES
  • GUIDE RATHER COMMAND THEIR EXPLORATION WITH THEIR FULL PERMISSION
  • BECOME A SUPPORTIVE PARTNER IN THEIR LEARNING PROCESS
  • HELP THEM LEARN THINGS ABOUT THEMSELVES THAT PERHAPS CAN BE LEARNED IN NO OTHER WAY
  • FOLLOW THEIR ENERGY
  • ENHANCE THEIR SELF ESTEEM
  • ENCOURAGE THEIR CREATIVITY
essence of leadership
ESSENCE OF LEADERSHIP
  • THE ESSENCE OF LEADING OTHER LIES IN WORKING WITH INDIVIDUALS TO HELP THEM TAP INTO THEIR OWN POWER AND CREATING THE CONDITIONS AND ENVIRONMENT WHERE THEY CAN WORK MOST EFFECTIVELY.
  • IT INVOLVES THREE ABILITIES: -
    • THE ABILITY TO ANTICIPATE THAT EACH INDIVIDUAL MAY NEED SOMETHING DIFFERENT TO DO HIS OR HER BEST WORK.
    • THE ABILITY TO WORK WITH EACH INDIVIDUAL IN SUCH A WAY AS TO MEET HIM WHERE HE IS, IN TERMS OF WHAT HE NEEDS TO DO HIS OR HER BEST WORK.
    • THE ABILITY TO MAKE EXPILICIT AGREEMENT ABOUT WHAT ASSISTANCE YOU WILL PROVIDE AND WHAT HE WILL DO TO GET HIS NEEDS.
leadership traits kirkpatrick and locke 1991
LEADERSHIP TRAITS(KIRKPATRICK AND LOCKE 1991)
  • DRIVE, ACHIEVE, ENERGY, TENACITY, INITIATIVE.
  • LEADERSHIP MOTIVATION
  • HONESTY AND INTEGRITY
  • SELF-CONFIDENCE (INCLUDING EMOTIONAL STABILITY)
  • COGNITIVE ABILITY
  • KNOWLEDGE OF HE BUSINESS
  • CHARISMA, CREATIVITY/ORIGINALITY, FLEXIBILITY
leadership traits stogdill 1974
LEADERSHIP TRAITS(STOGDILL 1974)
  • ADAPTABILITY
  • ADJUSTMENT (NORMALITY)
  • AGGRESSIVENESS AND ASSERTIVENESS
  • DOMINANCE
  • EMOTIONAL BALANCE AND CONTROL
  • INDEPENDENCE (NON-CONFORMITY)
  • ORIGINALITY AND CREATIVITY
  • PERSONAL INTEGRITY (ETHICAL CONDUCT)
  • SELF-CONFIDENCE
conclusions on leadership and management
CONCLUSIONS ON LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT
  • NO ONE BEST WAY TO LEAD AND MANAGE
  • COMBINATION AND CUSTOMIZATION PERHAPS APPROACH

FIVE BASIC APPROACHES OR STYLE

  • STRATEGIC APPROACH
  • HUMAN ASSEST APPROACH
  • EXPERTISE APPROACH
  • BOX APPROACH
  • CHANGE APPROACH
forces to be examined by the leaders
FORCES TO BE EXAMINED BY THE LEADERS
  • FORCES IN THE LEADER
    • THE LEADER’S VALUE SYSTEM
    • LEADERSHIP INCLINATION
    • TOLERANCE OF AMBIGUITY
    • ASSESSMENT OF OWN AND THE GROUP’S IMPORTANCE
  • FORCES OF SUBORDINATE GROUP
    • NEED FOR DEPENDENCY OR INDEPENDENCE
    • READINESS TO ASSUME RESPNSIBILITY
    • INTEREST IN THE PROBLEM
    • IDENTIFICATION WITH ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS
    • KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE
    • TOLERANCE OF AMBIGUITY
    • EXPECTATIONS
slide31
FORCES IN THE SITUATION
    • TYPE OF ORGANIZATION
    • NATURE OF THE TASK
    • PRESSURE OF TIME
    • GENERAL SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MILIEU
slide32

THANK YOU

CONTACT:

CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS UNIT

(ESTABLISHMENT DIVISION)

Block-B, II Floor, Benevolent Fund Building,

Islamabad.

Tele: 9217152

EMAIL: [email protected]

WEB: www.policy.hu/bokhari

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