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How to build a computer Brought to you by SFSU’s ACM Presented by Anthony Fregoso What will this class do for you? Give you the knowledge you need to confidently research and buy computer parts Show you how to assemble your computer with the parts you have purchased

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How to build a computer l.jpg

How to build a computer

Brought to you by SFSU’s ACM

Presented by Anthony Fregoso


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What will this class do for you?

  • Give you the knowledge you need to confidently research and buy computer parts

  • Show you how to assemble your computer with the parts you have purchased


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The Main Parts of a Computer

  • Case

  • Mother Board

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • Memory (RAM)

  • Hard Drive

  • Removable Storage

  • Video Card and Monitor

  • Sound Card

  • Keyboard/Mouse


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Computer Case

  • Important Questions

    • How much space do you have for the case?

    • How much space do you need for the computer parts going into it?

  • Categorized in two different ways

    • By overall case size

      • Full, Mid, Mini, and Micro Towers

    • By motherboard configuration

      • ATX, UATX, Mini ITX


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Case Size

  • Full Tower

    • Typically 4-6 dedicated hard drive bays (3.5 bays”)

    • 4 or more expansion bays for cdrom’s dvd players (5.25 bays”)

    • Typically 2 small drive bays for floppy or zip drive could also hold hard drives

    • Vast amounts of room for expansion cards

    • Several mounting brackets for fans

    • Good for servers, however bad if you ever need to move the computer because of size

    • Uses all ATX mother boards as well as special dual processor boards

  • Mid Tower

    • 2-4 3.5” bays but sometimes one must be used for a floppy drive

    • 3-4 expansion bays for cdrom or dvd

    • Plenty of room for expansion cards however some oversized cards will be a tight fit

    • Good all around case size allows for expandability and is not to big, designed to fit under most desks


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Case Size Continued

  • Mini Tower

    • 1-2 5.25” bays

    • 2 3.5” bays

    • Room for regular size expansion cards only over size cards will not fit

    • Will most likely use an UATX mother board

  • Micro Tower

    • 1 5.25” bays

    • 2 3.5” bays

    • Will at most hold 2-3 small expansion cards if that

    • Uses UATX or Mini ITX

    • A good case only when space must be saved or the computer must be portable


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Motherboard

  • This is the heart of the computer, this determines how expandable you computer will be in the future and what capabilities it has now

  • The types of components that you can buy is directly affect by the type of motherboard you purchase

  • It is extremely important to research a mother board that best suits you


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Mother Board types

  • There are 3 main categories for boards

    • All in one

      • These board come with built in sound, audio, and video

      • They are not very expandable and you are limited to what they originally come with

    • Bare Bones

      • These boards come with the most basic components

      • USB, PS/2, Serial, optional sound, ethernet, raid controller

    • Dual Processor

      • There are the dream boards that everyone wants

      • They are like bare bones boards but they can be equipped with 2 processors

      • This is beneficial when working with video and sound editing


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AMD based board (socket A)

Pentium based board (socket 478) 


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Processors

  • Intel

    • P4 - 800,533,400 mghz buss 1.7-3.06 ghz512kb L2 cache

    • PIII - 133 mghz buss 800 mghz - 1.4 ghz 512kb L2 cache

    • Celleron - 400 mghz buss 1.7-2.2 ghz 128 kb L2 cache

  • AMD

    • XP/XP+ - 333,266,200 mghz buss 1.4ghz–2.1ghz256kb L2 cache

    • XP MP - same as XP/XP + with modified buss architecture for multiprocessor use

    • Duron – 100 mghz buss 950-1300 mghz64 kb L2 cache


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Memory

  • Ram is a high speed temporary storage for CPU instructions and data

  • The memory you can buy is determined by the motherboard and type of processor you have

  • It is recommended that you purchase ram chips that run at the same speed

  • Adding more ram to a computer is one of the least expensive upgrades you can make with gaining more performance


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Types of RAM

  • SIMM - Used with PII’s

  • DRAM – Used with some PIII’s and PII’s

  • SDRAM - Used with PIII’s and AMD Durons

  • DDRAM - Used with AMD XP’s and some P4’s

  • RAMBUS - Used with new high end P4’s very expensive

  • Example listing - PC2100/266 (DDR) ECC REG 1GB

    • PC2100 = ram model #

    • 266 = ram speed 266 mghz

    • DDR = Ram type

    • ECC = Error correction code (ram can self correct 1 bit memory errors)

    • REG = Registered memory (this allows for extremely large capacity ram chips and greater reliability however this results in a slight loss of speed)


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Hard Drives

  • The Hard Drive is the permanent storage for your computer

  • Your operating system is stored on it along with all of your programs and data files

  • Hard drives are characterized by size and speed

  • Speed is determined in several ways

    • Buss speed ATA100 UATA133

    • HD rpm 5400, 7200, 10,000

    • Data Transfer speed

    • Average Seek Time

    • Buffer Size


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Removable Storage

  • CD-R/CD-RW

    • 48x24x48xCDRW

      • Write speed/rewrite speed/ read speed

    • 700mb of storage

  • DVD-R/DVD-RW

    • Specs given in specific transfer rates

    • Most are around 22 mbps depending on the media and manufacturer

    • 4.7 or 9.4 gb of storage depending on media

  • ZIP

    • Fast portable media

    • 100,250, 750 mb disks depending on drive version

  • FLOPPY DRIVE

    • Very slow and only 1.5 mb of storage

    • Good for small file transfer


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Video Card/ Monitor

  • Video Card/Monitor

    • Resolution

      • This is how many dots/inch the card can display on a screen

      • The ability to display more dpi is generally better

    • Refresh Rate

      • How many times per second the video image is updated on your screen

      • The higher the refresh rate the easier the image is on your eyes


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Video Card

  • Polygon count

    • Number of polygon’s the card can calculate at any one time, important for 3d games or 3d rendering

  • Memory

    • Higher amounts of memory allow for better refresh rates, polygon count, resolution

    • More is better

  • Input/Output

    • Video input/output

    • Tv Tuner


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Sound Cards

  • Sound cards interpret the audio information for games, digital music files, and cd/dvd audio

  • The sound card also provides the audio output and input connections on the computer

  • 4.1?5.1?6.1?

    • This is the number of speakers the sound card can decode digital audio signals for

    • 4.1 = 4 speakers + 1 subwoofer

  • Types of output/input connections

    • RCA

    • SPDIF

    • Head phone jack, microphone, line in, lineout

    • Game controller

    • SB1394(firewire)


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Mouse/Keyboard

  • This is the medium by witch a person can directly interact with a computer

  • With the mouse you move the courser and are able to select and move items in the graphical interface

  • With a keyboard you are able to input data and give commands to the computer


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Where Should I buy Parts

  • 3 options Mom & Pop, Chain store, Internet

  • M&P- tend to have the lowest prices

    • These places are small and have limited on hand stock and they tend not to carry little or no software

    • However they can get special orders in with in a matter of days

    • This is the place to go to get parts when building a computer when you know exactly what you want

    • Will typically carry the latest high end equipment even before chain stores can get them


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Parts Continued

  • Chain Stores

    • Large selection

    • Good place to buy when things are on sale and you don’t mind mail in rebates

    • Typically have long lines and poor customer service

  • Internet

    • With careful research and a lot of searching you can find low prices on the net

    • Hard to return faulty items

    • Look for hidden shipping charges


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For More Information

  • These sites have great articles on the history of computer parts as well as detailed information on how they work

  • www.pcmech.com

  • www.tomshardware.com

  • www.intel.com

  • www.kingstone.com


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Time for a short break

  • We will now have a short 5 minute break then I will proceed with the assembly of the computer


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