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Gram Negative PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Gram Negative. Bacterial Diseases. Proteobacteria. Alpha: Parasitic bacteria Tick borne diseases Flea vector Beta: GNC Gamma Largest group Enterics Delta Sulfur reducing bacteria in soil/water Predatory (attack other bacteria) Epsilon : GI. Gram Negative Cell Wall. Neisseria.

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Gram negative l.jpg

Gram Negative

Bacterial Diseases


Proteobacteria l.jpg

Proteobacteria

  • Alpha: Parasitic bacteria

    • Tick borne diseases

    • Flea vector

  • Beta: GNC

  • Gamma

    • Largest group

    • Enterics

  • Delta

    • Sulfur reducing bacteria in soil/water

    • Predatory (attack other bacteria)

  • Epsilon : GI


Gram negative cell wall l.jpg

Gram Negative Cell Wall


Neisseria l.jpg

Neisseria

  • Characteristics

    • GNC, diplococci

    • Capnophile

    • Nonmotile

    • Oxidase (+)

  • Pathogenicity

    • Fimbria

    • Capsule

    • Protease (inhibit IgA)

    • LOS (oligosaccharide)

      • Lipid A endotoxin


Neisseria meningitidis l.jpg

Neisseria meningitidis

  • Epidemiology

    • Normal microbiotica (resp)

  • Pathogenicity

    • Various strains

    • Capsule

    • LOS: lipid A

  • Disease

    • meningitis

    • Septicemia/death

  • Dx: CNS, Ab

  • Tx: AB

  • Prevention

    • Vaccination

    • Prophylactic AB to exposed


Neisseria gonorrhoeae l.jpg

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  • Gonococci

    • Eye

    • Pharynx

    • Uritogenital

    • Rectum

  • Pathogenicity

    • Adhesins

      • Pili

      • Protein II

    • Replicate in WBCs

  • Disease

    • STD “Clap”

    • PID  scar tissue

    • Neonatal conjunctivitis

    • Inflammation

      • Urinary

      • Repro

      • Oral Cavity


Neisseria gonorrhoeae7 l.jpg

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  • Dx

    • Culture/Isolation

    • Symptoms

  • Tx:

    • AB

      • Cepha-

      • quinolones

    • Iodine/Silver Nitrate (eye)

  • Prevention:

    • Screen/Detection

    • Tx infected individuals

    • Condom use

    • Public education


Enterobacteriaceae l.jpg

Enterobacteriaceae

  • Characteristics

    • GNR

    • Motile = flagella

    • Capsule/slime layer

    • Nitrate reduction

    • FA

    • Oxidase (-)

  • Epidemiology

    • Source

      • GI

      • Water

      • Soil

      • Decaying vegetation

Gamma Proteobacteria


Enterobacteriaceae9 l.jpg

Enterobacteriaceae

  • Groups

    • Gammaproteobacteria: Enterics

      • Coliforms

      • Noncoliforms

      • Pathogens

    • FA

    • Oxidase (-)

    • Reduce nitrate

    • (cocco)bacilli


Enterobacteriaceae10 l.jpg

Enterobacteriaceae

  • Pathogenicity

    • LPS

      • Core polysaccharide

      • O polysaccharide

      • Lipid A endotoxin

    • Antigens

      • Capsular (K)

      • Flagellar (H)

    • Virulence factors

      • Immune evasion

        • Capsule

        • Fimbriae

        • Type III secretion system

      • Adhesins

      • Exotoxins

      • Hemolysins

      • Iron-binding compounds


Enterobacteriaceae11 l.jpg

Enterobacteriaceae

  • Dx

    • Culture/Isolation

      • MAC

      • EMB

    • Location

  • Tx

    • Supportive

    • AB

  • Prevention

    • Hand washing

    • Sewage control


Coliforms l.jpg

Coliforms

  • Normal GI microbiotica

  • Groups

    • Escherichia

    • Klebsiella

    • Serratia

    • Enterobacter

    • Hafnia

    • Citrobacter

  • Biochemical tests

    • Ferment lactose


Enteric bacteria l.jpg

Enteric Bacteria

  • Pathogenicity

    • Glycocalyx

    • LPS

      • Core polysaccharide

      • O antigen

      • Lipid A endotoxin

    • K (capsular) antigens

    • H (flagellar) antigens

    • Fimbria

    • Adhesins

    • Exotoxins

    • Hemolysins

    • Bacteriocins

    • Iron binding proteins

    • Sex Pili  AB resistance


Enteric bacteria14 l.jpg

Enteric Bacteria

  • Diagnosis

    • Culture

    • Biochemical tests

  • Treatment

    • AB

    • Toxin neutralization

  • Prevention

    • Hygiene

    • Clean water supply


Esherichia coli l.jpg

Esherichia coli

  • Coliform

    • E. coli O157:H7

  • Pathogenicity

    • O, H, K antigens

    • Plasmids for virulence

    • Shiga-like Toxin

    • Type III secretion system

      • Disrupt PM

      • Receptors for attachment

  • Diseases

    • Gastroenteritis

      • Food-fecal contamination

    • UTI

      • Uremic syndrome

      • Pyelonephritis

    • Septicemia

    • Neonatal meningitis


Klebsiella l.jpg

Klebsiella

  • Epidemiology

    • Nosocomial

    • Reservior

      • Soil, water

      • GI

      • Respiratory tract

  • Pathogenicity

    • Polysaccharide capsules

  • Diseases

    • UTI

    • Bacteremia

    • Meningitis

    • Pneumonia

      • Cherry red sputum

      • Lung abscess

      • Empyema

  • Dx: Culture

  • Tx: AB


Serratia l.jpg

Serratia

  • Characteristics

    • Red pigment

    • coliform

  • Agent: S. marcescens

  • Epidemiology

    • Nosocomial

      • Opportunistic

      • Fomites (catheters, saline solutions)

    • GI

    • Soil, water

  • Pathogenicity

    • AB resistance

    • Endotoxin

  • Diseases

    • UTI

    • URTI


Enterobacter l.jpg

Enterobacter

  • Agents

    • E. aerogenes

    • E. cloacae

  • Location

    • Coliform

    • Water, sewage

    • Soil

  • Epidemiology

    • Opportunistic

      • Blood

      • Wounds/incisions

    • Nosocomial

  • Pathogenicity

    • Endotoxin

    • AB resistance

  • Disease

    • Dairy contaminant

    • UTI

    • Pneumonia


Hafnia formerly enterobacter sp l.jpg

Characteristics

GNR, FA

motile

Agent: H. alvei (2 biogroups)

Epidemiology

GI micorbiotica (HARF)

Opportunistic, nosocomial

Pathogenesis

Attach and efface enterocyte mucosa (LEE)

Disease

Diarrhea

Gastroenteritis

Peritinitis

Septecemia

Liver Abscesses

UTI

Endocarditis

Meningitis

Pneumonia

Dx: Culture fluids

Tx: AB

Hafnia (formerly Enterobacter sp)


Citrobacter l.jpg

Characteristics

GNR, FA

Ferment lactose

Agent: C. freundii

Epidemiology

GI microbiotica (HARF)

Soil, water

Decaying vegetation

Pathogenesis

Opportunistic

Lipid A endotoxin

Disease

UTI

Cholecystitis

Meningitis

OM

Dx: Culture fluids

Tx: AB

Citrobacter


Noncoliform l.jpg

Noncoliform

  • Opportunistic

  • Nosocomial

  • Diseases

    • UTI

    • Kidney stones

  • Groups

    • Proteus

    • Morganella

    • Providencia

    • Edwardsiella

  • Biochemical

    • Non lactose fomenters


Proteus l.jpg

Proteus

  • Characteristics

    • GNR, FA

    • Flagella (polar), swarms

    • Urease (+)

  • Agent

    • P. mirabilis

    • P. vulgaris

  • Epidemiology

    • Colon, soil & water

    • Opportunistic

  • Pathogenicity

    • Urease

    • Motility

    • Endotoxin

  • Disease

    • UTI (catheter)

    • Kidney stones

  • Dx: Culture

  • Tx: AB, resistance is developing


Morganella formerly proteus sp l.jpg

Characteristics

GNR, FA, motile

Only glucose fermentation

Agents

M. morganii

Epidemiology

GI microbiotica (HAR)

Nosocomial

Pathogenesis: Lipid A endotoxin

Disease

UTI

GI diarrhea

CNS infection

Ear and Sinus infections

Dx: Culture

Tx: AB

Morganella (formerly Proteus sp.)


Providencia l.jpg

Characteristics

GNR

Motile

FA

Agents:

P. stuartii

P. rettgeri

P. alcalifaciens

Epidemiology

Normal GI microbiotica

animals

humans

Nosocomial

Catheter

Endotracheal tubes

Pathogenesis: plasmid codes for urease

Disease

GU: UTI, prostatitis, kidney stones

Pneumonia

Bacteremia

Dx: Culture fluids, feces

Tx: AB, but developing resistance

Providencia


Edwardsiella l.jpg

Characteristics

GNR, FA

+/- motility

Agents

E. hoshinae

E. tarda

Epidemiology

Opportunistic

GI tract (HARF)

Pathogenesis

Disease

Gastroenteritis

UTI

Wound infections

Dx: Culture fluids

Tx: AB

Edwardsiella


Pathogenic enteric bacteria l.jpg

Pathogenic Enteric Bacteria

  • Characteristics

    • NLF

    • Virulence

      • Type III secretion

      • Toxins

  • Groups

    • Salmonella

    • Shigella

    • Yersinia


Salmonella l.jpg

Salmonella

  • Characteristic

    • GNR

    • Motile (peritrichous)

    • Gas production

    • H2S production

    • Urease (-)

    • Oxidase (-)

  • Location

    • GI (S. enterica)

    • 2,000 serovars

  • Examples

    • S. typhi

    • S. paratyphi

    • S. typhimurium


Salmonella pathogenicity l.jpg

Salmonella pathogenicity

  • Epidemiology

    • Fecal contamination

    • Poultry products

    • Milk

  • Pathogenicity

    • Many serotypes

    • Proteins  endocytosis

    • Invade intestinal mucosa

    • Toxins

      • Enterotoxin

      • Cytotoxin

  • Diseases

    • Salmonellosis

      • N/V/D

      • Bacteremia

    • Typhoid fever

      • Gastroenteritis

      • Bacteremia

      • Peritonitis


Salmonella29 l.jpg

Salmonella

  • Dx

    • Culture

    • Isolation

    • Symptoms

  • Tx

    • Supportive

    • AB

    • Cholecystectomy

  • Prevention

    • Hygiene

    • Proper food handling

      • Cooking

      • Refrigeration

    • Vaccination


Salmonella typhi l.jpg

Salmonella typhi

  • Epidemiology

    • Source

      • Carrier’s feces

    • Transmission

      • Contaminated food/H2O

  • Pathogenesis

    • Invade GI spread to LN, Liver, GB

    • Shed bacteria in feces: 3mos

    • Abdominal pain, anorexia

  • Disease

    • Typhoid fever

  • Dx: Culture blood, feces; Serology

  • Tx: AB

  • Prevention:

    • Food handling

    • Isolation of infected individuals

    • Vaccine for high risk individuals


Shigella l.jpg

Shigella

  • Characteristics

    • GNR

    • Nonmotile

    • FA

    • (-): urease, oxidase

  • Examples

    • S. dysenteriae

    • S. flexneri

    • S. boydii

    • S. sonnei


Shigella32 l.jpg

Shigella

  • Location

    • GI pathogen

  • Epidemiology

    • Source: food/water contamination with feces

    • Transmission

      • Fecal-oral

      • 4 F’s

        • food

        • fingers

        • feces

        • flies


Shigella33 l.jpg

Shigella

  • Pathogenesis

    • Multiply in colon mucosa

    • Disrupt phagosome membrane and invade

    • Toxins

      • Exotoxin: Shiga Toxin

      • Endotoxin

  • Disease

    • Diarrhea:

      • water, blood, mucus

      • Shigellosis dysentery

    • Ulcerate colon

  • Dx: Isolates, biochemical tests, serology

  • Tx: fluid support, AB

  • Prevention

    • Hygiene

    • Sewage treatment


Yersinia l.jpg

Yersinia

  • Characteristics

    • GNR

  • Location

    • GI of animals

    • Endemic (in West Texas)

  • Epidemiology

    • Food/H20 contamination with feces

      • Direct contact

      • Indirect: inhalation

    • Vector: flea bite

  • Agents

    • Y. enterocolitica

    • Y. pseudotuberculosis

    • Y. pestis


Yersinia35 l.jpg

Yersinia

  • Pathogenicity

    • Pathogen

    • YOPS

      • outer membrane proteins

      • Prevent phagocytosis

    • Plasmid virulence factors

      • Adhesins

      • Type III secretion systems

        • Trigger apoptosis

          • PMN

          • MO


Yersinia36 l.jpg

Yersinia

  • Diseases

    • Gastroenteritis (Y. enterocolitica)

      • SI

      • Mesenteric LN

    • Plague (Y. pestis)

      • Bubonic (LN)

      • Pneumonic (Lungs)

  • Dx: Blood ID, culture, PCR

  • Tx: AB

  • Prevention: control

    • Rodent

    • Flea

    • Vaccination

    • Isolation of infected persons


Plague life cycle l.jpg

Plague life cycle

  • Reservoir

    • Rats

    • Mice

    • Voles

  • Vector: Flea

  • Hosts

    • Amplify

      • Prairie dogs

      • Rabbits

      • Deer

      • Dogs/Cats

  • Cycle

    • Flea bite

    • Exposure to infected animals


Bubonic plague l.jpg

Bubonic Plague

  • Lymphadenopathy

  • Bacteremia

  • DIC

  • S.C. Hemorrhage

  • Gangrene

  • “Black” Death


Pneumonic plague l.jpg

Pneumonic Plague

  • Lungs

    • Bloody sputum

    • Dyspnea

  • Respiratory droplet


Alpha beta other gamma proteobacteria l.jpg

Alpha, Beta, & other Gamma proteobacteria

  • Aerobic

  • GNR

  • Groups

    • Alpha

      • Bartonella

      • Brucella

    • Beta

      • Bordetella

      • Burkholderia

    • Gamma

      • Pseudomonads

        • Pseudomonas

        • Moraxella

        • Acinetobacter

      • Francisella

      • Legionella

      • Coxiella


Alpha proteobacteria l.jpg

Alpha Proteobacteria


Bartonella l.jpg

Bartonella

  • Characteristics

    • Aerobic

  • Location: animals

  • Vectors: insects

  • Examples

    • B. bacilliformis

    • B. quintana

    • B. henselae


Bartonella diseases l.jpg

Bartonella Diseases

  • Bartonellosis

    • Sand flies

    • RBCs invaded

  • Trench fever

    • Lice

    • Bone pain

  • Bacillary

    • Angiomatosis

    • Peliosis hepatitis

  • Cat-Scratch fever

    • fleas

    • Cat nails, teeth

    • LN and abscesses


Brucella l.jpg

Brucella

  • Characteristics

    • coccobacillus

  • Location

    • Intracellular parasite

    • Animal hosts

  • Pathogenicity

    • Prevent phagolysosome

  • Examples

    • B. melitensis

    • B. abortus

    • B. suis

    • B. canis


Brucella45 l.jpg

Brucella

  • Epidemiology

    • Unpasteurized dairy

    • Animal blood / urine

    • Reproductive organs

  • Disease

    • Undulant fever (Bangs)

  • Tx: AB

  • Prevention

    • Animal vaccination


Beta proteobacteria l.jpg

Beta Proteobacteria


Bordetella l.jpg

Bordetella

  • Characteristics

    • Aerobic

    • GN coccobacillus

  • Location

  • Examples

    • B. pertussis

    • B. parapertussis

    • B. bronchiseptica


Bordetella48 l.jpg

Bordetella

  • Epidemiology

    • Inhaled aerosols

    • Inhibit ciliary action

  • Pathogenicity

    • Adhesins

    • Toxins

      • Pertussis

      • Adenylate cyclase

      • Dermonecrotic

      • Tracheal

  • Disease: whooping cough

  • Prevention

    • Hygiene

    • Vaccination (DPT)


Burkholderia l.jpg

Burkholderia

  • Characteristics

    • Aerobic

    • Flagella

  • Location

    • environmental

    • Opportunistic:

      • Lungs

      • Joints

      • Skin

  • Diseases

    • Meliodosis

    • Glanders

  • Example

    • Burk. cepacia

    • Burk. mallei

    • Burk. pseuodomallei


Gamma proteobacteria l.jpg

Gamma Proteobacteria


Pseudomonads l.jpg

Pseudomonads

  • Characteristics

    • GNR

    • aerobic

  • Location

    • Environment: soil

    • Moist areas

    • opportunistic

  • Examples

    • Pseudomonas

    • Moraxella

    • Actinobacter


Pseudomonas aeruginosa l.jpg

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  • Pathogenicity

    • Fimbria= biofilms

    • Adhesins

    • Enzymes

      • Neuraminidase

      • elastase

    • Capsule

    • ROS

    • Drug Antiports

    • Toxins

      • Endotoxin: Lipid A

      • Exotoxin

        • Exotoxin A

        • Exoenzyme S


Pseudomonas aeruginosa53 l.jpg

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  • Diseases

    • Bacteremia

    • Endocarditis

    • UTI

    • CNS

    • GI

    • M/SK

    • Burn

    • Resp


Moraxella catarrhalis formerly branhamella sp l.jpg

Moraxella catarrhalis (formerly Branhamella sp)

  • Characteristics

    • Aerobic

    • Short bacilli

  • Disease

    • Opportunistic

    • URTI

    • Ears

    • Sinusitis


Acinetobacter l.jpg

Acinetobacter

  • Characteristics

    • Aerobic

    • Short bacillus

  • Location

    • Soil

    • Water

    • Sewage

  • Diseases

    • Opportunistic

    • URTI

    • UTI

    • CNS

    • Endocarditis


Francisella l.jpg

Francisella

  • Characteristics: GNR

  • Agent: F. tularensis

  • Epidemiology

    • Animal reservoirs (rabbits)

    • Transmission

      • Vector bite (tick, fly, mosq)

      • Direct contact with infected tissue

      • Inhalation

  • Pathogenesis

    • Ulcer

    • Enlarged LN

  • Disease

    • Tuleremia

  • Dx: Culture, PCR, FlorescentAb/Agglut

  • Tx: AB

  • Prevention

    • Vector control

    • Vaccination


Francisella tularensis l.jpg

Francisella tularensis

  • Characteristics

    • Aerobic

    • Coccobacillus

  • Location

    • Water

    • Intracellular parasite

  • Epidemiology

    • Zoonotic

      • Bite mosquito, fly

      • Tick feces

      • Infected animal

        • Rabbit

        • muskrat

    • Tularemia

  • Pathogenicity

    • Capsule

    • Beta lactamase

  • Disease

    • LN buboes

    • Resp: cough, pain

    • Death


Legionella l.jpg

Legionella

  • Source: environment

    • Soil

    • Water (A/C, showers)

  • Epidemiology

    • Airborne

    • Chronic illness susceptible

  • Path

    • Cytotoxic protease

  • Diseases

    • Severe bronchopneumonia

    • Pontiac fever

  • Dx : Isolation, urine Ag

  • Tx: AB

  • Prevention

    • clean environment

    • Water chlorination


Legionella pneumophila l.jpg

Legionella pneumophila

  • Characteristic

    • Aerobic

    • Pleomorphic

  • Location: water

  • Epidemiology

    • Intracellular parasite

    • Inhalation of aerosols

  • Pathogenicity

    • Protozoa carry

    • Exit pores

  • Disease

    • Pneumonia

    • 2nd: GI, Urinary


Coxiella burnetii l.jpg

Coxiella burnetii

  • Characteristic

    • aerobe

  • Location

    • Intracellular parasite

    • phagolysosome

  • Epidemiology

    • Hosts

      • Avian

      • Mammals

    • Vector: Tick

  • Pathogenicity

    • Spore like infective body

  • Human Disease

    • Inhale infective body

    • Q fever

      • Acute

      • Chronic


Pasteurellaceae l.jpg

Pasteurellaceae

  • Gammaproteobacteria

    • GNR

    • Oxidase (+)

    • FA

    • Nonmotile

  • Groups

    • Pasteurella

    • Haemophilus

Bovine pneumonia


Pasteurella l.jpg

Pasteurella

  • Characteristics

    • GNR

  • Agent: P. multocida

  • Location

    • Normal microbiotica in animals

      • Oral

      • Resp

  • Exposure

    • Animal bite

    • Aerosol

  • Pathogenesis

    • Zoonotic

  • Disease

    • Humans

      • Abscess

      • Arthritis

    • Animals

      • Pneumonia

      • Sepsis


Haemophilus l.jpg

Haemophilus

  • Characteristics

    • GNR

    • Pleomorphic

  • Location

    • MM parasite

  • Examples

    • H. influenza

    • H. ducreyi

    • H. aphrophilus

    • H. parainfluenza

    • H. aegyptius


Haemophilus influenzae l.jpg

Haemophilus influenzae

  • Pathogenicity

    • Capsule

    • K antigen

    • Various strains

  • Disease

    • Meningitis

    • Infantile arthritis

    • Cellulitis

    • Epiglottitis

    • Ocular and Aural (OM)

    • Sinusitis

    • URTI (bronchitis. Pneumonia)

  • Tx: AB

  • Prevention

    • vaccination


Haemophilus parainfluenza l.jpg

Haemophilus parainfluenza

  • Characteristics

  • Epidemiology

    • Component of dental plaque

  • Pathogenesis

  • Disease

    • POD

    • Valvular endocarditis

  • Dx


Haemophilus aegyptius l.jpg

Haemophilus aegyptius

  • Purpuric Fever

    • South America

    • Children

    • Disease

      • Conjunctivitis 

      • N/V/D 

      • Shock 

      • Death


Haemophilus ducreyi l.jpg

Haemophilus ducreyi

  • STD

  • Pathogenicity

    • toxin

  • Disease

    • Genital ulcer (chancroid)


Vibrios l.jpg

Vibrios

  • Vibrio

  • Campylobacter

  • Helicobacter


Vibrio l.jpg

Vibrio

  • Characteristics

    • GNR

  • Agent: V. cholera

  • Epidemiology

    • carriers

    • Fecal contamination

      • Water

      • Food

  • Pathogenesis

    • Serotypes: O1 and O139

    • Adhere to intestinal mucosa

    • Toxin: Choleragen (from bacteriophage)

      • Subunit A

        • Activates adenylate cyclase

        • Hypersecretion of Cl- and H20

      • Subunit B

        • Binds to intestinal receptors

  • Disease

    • Muscle cramps

    • Profuse diarrhea

    • Circulatory shock and collapse

  • Dx: culture of feces, Agglutination Rxn

  • Tx: supportive; AB

  • Prevention: water sanitation


Proteobacteria70 l.jpg

Proteobacteria

  • Epsilon

    • Campylobacter

    • Helicobacter


Campylobacter l.jpg

Campylobacter

  • Characteristics

    • GNR, curved

    • Capnophile

  • Agent: C. jejuni

  • Epidemiology

    • Source

      • GI animals

        • Birds

        • Cattle

      • Water

    • Transmission

      • Contaminated water

      • Undercooked food

      • Contact with infected animals


Campylobacter72 l.jpg

Campylobacter

  • Pathogenesis

    • Invades SI

    • Exotoxin (similar to cholera toxin)

  • Disease

    • Gastroenteritis and ulceration

    • Bloody watery diarrhea

    • Endocarditis

    • Septic arthritis

    • Meningitis

  • Dx: Culture and Isolation

  • Tx: Supportive, AB: erythromycin

  • Prevention:

    • Hygiene

    • Proper food handling

      • Pasteurization

      • Cooking of meat


Helicobacter campylobacter l.jpg

Helicobacter (Campylobacter)

  • Characteristics

    • GNR

  • Agent: H. pylori

  • Epidemiology

    • Gastric mucosa (mucus)

    • Food-water: person-person

  • Pathogenesis

    • Adhesins: Fimbria

    • Enzymes

      • Urease

      • Proteases

      • Phospholipidase

      • Cytokines

    • Toxins: cytoxins

  • Diseases

    • Gastritis

    • Peptic ulcers

    • Gastric cancer

  • Dx: Gastric biopsy  culture

  • Tx:

    • Peptobismol

    • Metronidizole

    • Beta lactam AB

    • Prevacid


Anaerobic gnr l.jpg

Anaerobic GNR

  • Bacteroides

  • Prevotella


Bacteroides fragilis l.jpg

Bacteroides fragilis

  • Characteristics

    • GNR

    • Pleomorphic

    • anaerobic

  • Location

    • Normal GI microbiotica

  • Epidemiology

    • 85% of GI disease

  • Pathogenicity

    • Fimbria

    • Capsule

    • Inhibit lysosomes

  • Disease

    • Peritonitis (ruptured GI)

    • Pelvic Abscesses

    • Wound necrosis


Provotella l.jpg

Provotella

  • Characteristic

    • GNR

    • anaerobic

  • Location: normal flora

    • Urogenital

    • Respiratory

  • Epidemiology: opportunistic

  • Pathogenicity

    • Adhesins

    • Antiphagocytic capsules

    • Proteases

  • Disease

    • Sinusitis

    • OM

    • POD

    • PID


Questions l.jpg

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