getting a new behavior to occur an application of shaping
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Getting a New Behavior to Occur: An Application of Shaping

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Getting a New Behavior to Occur: An Application of Shaping. Chapter 10. Definition. Shaping Development of a new behavior by successive reinforcement of closer approximations and extinguishing of preceding approximations of behavior Five aspects of behavior that can be shaped

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definition
Definition
  • Shaping
    • Development of a new behavior by successive reinforcement of closer approximations and extinguishing of preceding approximations of behavior
  • Five aspects of behavior that can be shaped
    • Topography – specific movements involved
    • Frequency – number of instances that occur in a given period of time
    • Duration – length of time a response lasts
    • Latency – time between occurrence of a stimulus and the response evoked by that stimulus
    • Intensity – force of a response; physical effect the response has on the environment
factors influencing the effectiveness of shaping
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping
  • Specifying the final desired behavior
    • Terminal behavior – final desired behavior
    • Specify precise behavior and conditions under which it is to occur
  • Choosing a starting behavior
    • Should be a behavior that occurs often enough to reinforce within session time
    • Should be a behavior that approximates the final desired behavior
factors influencing the effectiveness of shaping4
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping
  • Choosing the shaping steps
    • Helpful to outline the approximations that will be reinforced
  • Moving along at the correct pace
    • Reinforce an approximation at least several times before proceeding to the next step
    • Avoid reinforcing too many times at any shaping step
    • If behavior is lost because the program was moving too fast, or the steps were too big, return to an earlier approximation
pitfalls of shaping
Pitfalls of Shaping
  • Shaping can be accidentally applied with unfortunate results
    • Harmful behaviors may be accidentally shaped
    • Undesirable behaviors can be eliminated by combination of extinction of undesirable behavior and reinforcement of desirable behavior
    • May be difficult because:
      • Behavior is sometimes too harmful
      • Inexperienced individuals may unknowingly foil the efforts of those who are conscientiously attempting to apply these principles
  • Children may not get the necessary shaping to develop basic behaviors
    • i.e. developing speech
guidelines for the effective application of shaping
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Shaping
  • Set the terminal behavior
  • Select an appropriate reinforcer
  • Develop the initial plan
  • Implement the plan
    • Tell learner about plan before starting
    • Begin reinforcing immediately following each occurrence of the starting behavior
    • Never move to new approximation until the previous one is mastered
    • If learner stops working, may have moved up the steps too quickly, steps may not be the right size, or the reinforcer may be ineffective
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