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Getting a New Behavior to Occur: An Application of Shaping PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Getting a New Behavior to Occur: An Application of Shaping. Chapter 10. Definition. Shaping Development of a new behavior by successive reinforcement of closer approximations and extinguishing of preceding approximations of behavior Five aspects of behavior that can be shaped

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Getting a New Behavior to Occur: An Application of Shaping

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Getting a new behavior to occur an application of shaping l.jpg

Getting a New Behavior to Occur: An Application of Shaping

Chapter 10


Definition l.jpg

Definition

  • Shaping

    • Development of a new behavior by successive reinforcement of closer approximations and extinguishing of preceding approximations of behavior

  • Five aspects of behavior that can be shaped

    • Topography – specific movements involved

    • Frequency – number of instances that occur in a given period of time

    • Duration – length of time a response lasts

    • Latency – time between occurrence of a stimulus and the response evoked by that stimulus

    • Intensity – force of a response; physical effect the response has on the environment


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Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping

  • Specifying the final desired behavior

    • Terminal behavior – final desired behavior

    • Specify precise behavior and conditions under which it is to occur

  • Choosing a starting behavior

    • Should be a behavior that occurs often enough to reinforce within session time

    • Should be a behavior that approximates the final desired behavior


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Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping

  • Choosing the shaping steps

    • Helpful to outline the approximations that will be reinforced

  • Moving along at the correct pace

    • Reinforce an approximation at least several times before proceeding to the next step

    • Avoid reinforcing too many times at any shaping step

    • If behavior is lost because the program was moving too fast, or the steps were too big, return to an earlier approximation


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Pitfalls of Shaping

  • Shaping can be accidentally applied with unfortunate results

    • Harmful behaviors may be accidentally shaped

    • Undesirable behaviors can be eliminated by combination of extinction of undesirable behavior and reinforcement of desirable behavior

    • May be difficult because:

      • Behavior is sometimes too harmful

      • Inexperienced individuals may unknowingly foil the efforts of those who are conscientiously attempting to apply these principles

  • Children may not get the necessary shaping to develop basic behaviors

    • i.e. developing speech


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Guidelines for the Effective Application of Shaping

  • Set the terminal behavior

  • Select an appropriate reinforcer

  • Develop the initial plan

  • Implement the plan

    • Tell learner about plan before starting

    • Begin reinforcing immediately following each occurrence of the starting behavior

    • Never move to new approximation until the previous one is mastered

    • If learner stops working, may have moved up the steps too quickly, steps may not be the right size, or the reinforcer may be ineffective


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