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Where do they go from here?. European Union Constitution. Decades of War. Franco-Prussian War WWI WWII. Verdun. Maybe this . . . . . . at least this much. Brief History of the EU. 1951, Treaty of Paris): European Coal and Steel Community (Community I)

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decades of war
Decades of War
  • Franco-Prussian War
  • WWI
  • WWII
brief history of the eu
Brief History of the EU
  • 1951, Treaty of Paris): European Coal and Steel Community (Community I)

Belgium, West Germany, Luxemburg, France, Italy, Netherlands

  • 1957: Euratom (Community II), EEC (Community III)
  • 1967: Communities I, II, III merge; establishment of EU Commission, Council of Ministers
  • 1972: Direct elections to parliament
brief history cont d
Brief History (cont’d)
  • 1973: Denmark, Ireland, UK join
  • 1981: Greece joins
  • 1985: Schengen Agreement (excl. UK, Rep of Ireland; incl. Iceland, Norway, Switzerland)
brief history cont d8
Brief History (cont’d)
  • 1986: Spain & Portugal join
  • 1995: Austria, Finland, Sweden join
  • 2002: EURO introduction
brief history cont d9
Brief History (cont’d)
  • 2004: Cyprus, Malta, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Poland (now 454 million EU citizens)
  • 2007: Bulgaria & Romania
  • Future: Croatia, Turkey (?)
brief history cont d10
Brief History (cont’d)
  • 1952 European Defense Community; rejected in 1954 by France
  • 1961 UK applies for EU membership under Harold McMillan; vetoed by France in 1963
  • France & NATO
brief history cont d12
Brief History (cont’d)
  • 2002-3 Constitutional Convention in Brussels
  • 2004 Constitution (Constitutional Treaty) signed by heads of gov’t in Rome (Treaty of Rome)
brief history cont d13
Brief History (cont’d)
  • May 29, 2005: France rejects proposed constitution

45.1% NO v. 24.2% YES

  • June 1, 2005: Netherlands rejects proposed constitution

38.5% NO v. 24.3% YES

who has approved the constitution
Who Has Approved the Constitution?
  • Austria, Belgium, Cyprus,
  • Estonia, Germany, Greece,
  • Hungary, Italy, Latvia,
  • Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
  • Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (15)
who has yet to vote
Who Has Yet to Vote?
  • Who has yet to vote? Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Czech Republic
  • Portugal, Republic of Ireland, UK, Poland (8)
important question
Important Question:
  • Who approves by referendum?
  • Who approves by parliament alone?
constitutional convention brussels 2002 3
Constitutional ConventionBrussels, 2002-3
  • Valery Giscard D’estaing, Thomas Jefferson & Benjamin Franklin
  • Federalist Papers? (ct. Gordon Brown who reportedly takes the Fed Papers on vacation.)
  • Your citizens “will one day build statues of you on horseback in the villages you all come from.”
  • Convention ended with draft but no agreements
  • No statues yet
why a constitution for europe
Why a Constitution for Europe?
  • Coherence out of patchwork of treaties
  • Overcome “democratic deficit”
why a constitution cont d
Why a Constitution (cont’d)?
  • Improvements:

Parliament, QMV, Commission

  • More towards a “super-state”:

foreign policy, presidency of Council of Ministers, “legal personality”

comparison eu v us constitutions
Comparison: EU v. US Constitutions
  • 60,000+ words v 4543 words
  • Elegance? EU hardly looks like a traditional constitution
  • View of human nature (cf. Fed. Paper #10)
  • View of power (cf. Fed. Paper #51); comparative absence of separation of powers, checks and balances
comparison cont d
Comparison (cont’d)
  • Bill of Rights:

U.S.: limited

EU: expansive

comparison cont d25
Comparison (cont’d)
  • Institutional comparison: EU hardly looks like a traditional government:

U.S.: Executive, Legislative, Judicial + Bureaucracy

EU: EU Commission, Council of Ministers, Parliament, Court of Justice

why did the eu constitution fail why might it fail
Why did the EU Constitution Fail? Why Might it Fail?
  • Politics
  • Nationalism

e.g. France, Netherlands, UK, Denmark, Poland

  • Fundamental Issues “Papered Over”

e.g. foreign policy, nature of the European welfare state v. market economy, view of U.S., role of France & Germany, agricultural subsidies

failure cont d
Failure? (cont’d)
  • No common culture (e.g. religion)
  • No proper debate, not understood by average citizen (not even read by average citizen)
  • Sense of arrogance & condescension
  • Approval by sleight of hand (but the “game may be up”)

Cf. 1992 Denmark and Treaty of Maastricht; 2002 Ireland and Treaty of Nice

  • Total rejection

If so, this may mean “Europe” goes no farther

future cont d
Future (cont’d)
  • Partial approval, either in “slim-downed version” or as a result of “cherry picking”
  • Postponement
  • Should be considered in light of other European trends:

Immigration, esp. Islamic

Economic stagnation