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Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements. 2.1 Elements and Symbols 2.2 Periodic Table. Elements. Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes Are the building blocks of matter 112 elements known today Examples: carbon gold calcium.

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Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements

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Chapter 2Atoms and Elements

2.1 Elements and Symbols

2.2 Periodic Table

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Elements

  • Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes

  • Are the building blocks of matter

  • 112 elements known today

    Examples: carbon

    gold

    calcium

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Symbols of Elements

  • Use 1 or 2 letter abbreviations

  • Capitalize the first letter only

    Examples:

    C carbon Cocobalt

    N nitrogenCacalcium

    F fluorine Br bromine O oxygen Mg magnesium

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Symbols from Latin Names

ElementSymbolLatin name

CopperCucuprum

GoldAuaurum

LeadPbplumbum

MercuryHghydrargyrum

PotassiumKkalium

SilverAgargentum

SodiumNanatrium

TinSnstannum

LecturePLUS Timberlake


% Major Elements in the Body

O65.0 %K 0.34

C18.0S 0.26

H10.0Na 0.14

N 3.0Cl 0.14

Ca 1.4Fe 0.004

P 1.0 Zn 0.003

Mg 0.50

Trace Elements

As, Cr, Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, V

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning Check

Select the correct symbol for each:

A. Calcium

1) C2) Ca3) CA

B. Sulfur

1) S2) Sl3) Su

C. Iron

1) Ir2) FE3) Fe

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution

Select the correct symbol for each:

A. Calcium

2) Ca

B. Sulfur

1) S

C. Iron

3) Fe

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning Check

Select the correct name for each:

A. N

1) neon2) nitrogen 3) nickel

B. P

1) potassium2) phogiston3) phosphorus

C. Ag

1) silver2) agean3) gold

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution

Select the correct name for each:

A. N

2) nitrogen

B. P

3) phosphorus

C. Ag

1) silver

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Periodic Table

The periodic table is an arrangement of the elements according to similarities in their chemical and physical properties.

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Physical Properties

The characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance.

  • Color

  • Size

  • Shape

  • Density

  • Freezing and Boiling Points

  • Odor

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Groups of Elements

  • Vertical columns on the periodic table

  • Similar physical properties

  • Similar chemical properties

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Groups on the Periodic Table

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Representative Groups

  • Group 1Alkali Metals

  • Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals

  • Group 7 Halogens

  • Group 8Noble Gases

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Location of Some Groups

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A

l m

k e

a t

l a

i l

s

A

l

k

a

l

i

n

e

H

a

l

o

g

e

n

s

I G

n a

e s

r e

t s

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Periods on the Periodic Table

  • Horizontal rows from Group 1 to Group 8.

  • Numbered 1, 2, 3, ….

  • Include representative elements and transition elements

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Periods on the Periodic Table

1

2

3

4

5

6

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning Check

A. Element in Group VIIA, Period 4

1) Br2) Cl3) Mn

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

1) beryllium2) magnesium 3) boron

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution

A. Element in Group 7A, period 4

1) Br

B. Element in Group 2A, Period 3

2) magnesium

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning Check

A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4

1) Br2) Cl3) Mn

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

1) beryllium2) magnesium 3) boron

C. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, Sn

D. Nonmetals in Group VA

1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P, As 3) N, P, As, Sb

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution

A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4

1) Br

B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3

2) magnesium

C. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

D. Nonmetals in Group VA

2) N, P, As

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Metals and Nonmetals

Metals

  • Located to the left of the heavy line

  • Shiny, ductile

  • Good conductors of heat and electricity

    Nonmetals

  • Located to the right of the heavy line

  • Dull and brittle

  • Poor conductors, good insulators

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Metals and Nonmetals

Transition metals

NONMETALS

METALS

METALS

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning Check

Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:

A. sulfur____

B. chlorine____

C. sodium____

D. iron____

E. carbon____

F. silver____

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution

Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:

A. sulfur2

B. chlorine2

C. sodium1

D. iron1

E. carbon2

F. silver1

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Learning Check

Select the correct elements:

A. Metals in Group IVA

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

2) C, Si

3) C, Si, Ge, Sn

B. Nonmetals in Group VA

1) As, Sb, Bi

2) N, P, As

3) N, P, As, Sb

LecturePLUS Timberlake


Solution

A. Metals in Group 4A

1) Ge, Sn, Pb

B. Nonmetals in Group 5A

2) N, P, As

LecturePLUS Timberlake


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