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Chapter 1 Psychological Science. What is Psychology?. the science of behavior and mental processes. Psychology’s Current Perspectives. Perspective Focus. Neuroscience How the body and brain create emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.

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Chapter 1

Psychological Science


What is psychology
What is Psychology?

the science of behavior and mental processes


Psychology s current perspectives
Psychology’s Current Perspectives

Perspective Focus

Neuroscience How the body and brain create emotions, memories, and

sensory experiences

Evolutionary How nature selects traits that promote the perpetuation of

one’s genes

Behavior How much our genes, and our environment, influence our

genetics individual differences

Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and

conflicts

Behavioral How behavior is learned

Cognitive How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information

Social-cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and

cultures


Current perspectives
Current Perspectives

PerspectiveFocus

  • Neuroscience How the brain creates emotions, thoughts, and behaviors

  • Evolutionary How nature selects traits

    that promote survival of

    our genes


Current perspectives1
Current Perspectives

PerspectiveFocus

  • Behavior Genetics How much our genes

    are responsible for

    individual differences

  • Psychodynamic How behavior springs

    from unconscious drives

    and conflicts


Current perspectives2
Current Perspectives

PerspectiveFocus

  • Behavioral How we learn observable

    behavior

  • Cognitive How we encode, process,

    store and retrieve

    information


Current perspectives3
Current Perspectives

PerspectiveFocus

  • Social-cultural How social situations and culture influences behavior and thought

  • Eclectic Drawing from two or more of the perspectives to explain behavior or thought processes


Psychology vs psychiatry
Psychology vs. Psychiatry

  • Clinical Psychology (Ph.D)

    • a specialty in psychology

    • clinical psychologists

    • uses psychotherapy to treat psychological disorders

  • Psychiatry (M.D.)

    • a specialty in medicine

    • psychiatrists

    • may prescribe medication and use psychotherapy


The scientific method

theories

lead to

generate or refine

research and

observations

hypothesis

The Scientific Method


Scientific method
Scientific Method

  • Goal is good theory

    • theories explain behavior

  • Science guards against

    • faulty explanations

    • hindsight bias


Faulty explanations intuition and the hot streak
Faulty Explanations Intuition and The Hot Streak


Hindsight bias
Hindsight Bias

  • tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

  • the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon


The scientific method1
The Scientific Method

  • Theory

    • a general explanation as to why a behavior occurs

  • Hypothesis

    • a testable prediction

    • often derived from a theory

    • Example: I predict A will cause B


The scientific method2

theories

lead to

generate or refine

research and

observations

hypothesis

The Scientific Method


The scientific method3
The Scientific Method

  • Operational Definition

    • a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables

    • for example, intelligence may be operationally defined as “what an intelligence test measures”


The scientific method4
The Scientific Method

  • Replication

    • repeating the procedures of a research study with another sample of participants

    • to see whether the results are also repeated


Types of scientific methods
Types of Scientific Methods

1. Case Study

2. Survey

3. Naturalistic Observation

4. Correlation Coefficient

5. Experiment


Types of scientific methods1
Types of Scientific Methods

1. Case Study

  • in depth observation of one person in hopes of revealing universal laws


Types of scientific methods2
Types of Scientific Methods

2. Survey

  • a questionnaire about attitudes or behavior given to a sample of people


A key distinction population versus sample
A Key Distinction: Population versus Sample

  • Population

    • a specific group of interest to the researcher (e.g., all children!)

    • a sample is drawn from a population


Drawing a sample
Drawing a Sample

  • Male subjects, neurosis, and sex!


Good samples
Good Samples

  • Representative Sample

    • a sample that is a perfect reflection of a population, only smaller in size

  • Random Sample

    • a sample that fairly represents a population because each member of the sample had an equal chance of being chosen


Types of scientific methods3
Types of Scientific Methods

3. Naturalistic Observation

  • observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations, trying not to manipulate the situation


Types of scientific methods4
Types of Scientific Methods

4. Correlation Coefficient

  • a measure that shows the extent to which two variables change together

  • good for prediction

  • Note: correlation does not imply causation!


Correlation and causation

(1)

Low self-esteem

Depression

or

(2)

Depression

could cause

Low self-esteem

or

Low self-esteem

(3)

Distressing events

or biological

predisposition

could cause

and

Depression

Correlation and Causation

  • Three possible cause-effect relations

could cause


Types of scientific methods5
Types of Scientific Methods

5. Experiment

  • a procedure for identifying the causes of behavior

  • all experiments have two variables:

    • Independent Variable: variable manipulated by a researcher

    • Dependent Variable: observed consequence of IV on some behavior or mental process


The dependent variable
The Dependent Variable

  • Dependent Variable

    • the variable that is being measured

    • value of DV depends on value of IV


Experiment
Experiment

  • Experimental Group

    • these participants are exposed to the independent variable (treatment)

  • Control Group

    • these participants do not receive the independent variable

    • is a comparison group we use to be able to see the effect of the independent variable (treatment)

  • Note:the measure (DV) is taken for both groups


Experiment1
Experiment

  • Random Assignment

    • assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance

    • minimizes preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups


Experiment2
Experiment

  • Placebo

    • an inert substance (e.g., sugar pill) instead of an active agent (e.g., drug)

    • placebo is administered to see if it triggers the same reaction as the active agent (IV)

  • Placebo Effect

    • any effect on behavior caused by a placebo


Experiment3
Experiment

  • Single-blind Procedure

    • Research participants don’t know if they are getting the placebo or active agent.

  • Double-blind Procedure

    • Participants don’t know ….

    • Also, research staff doesn’t know (blind) who is getting the active agent vs. placebo


The scientific method5
The Scientific Method

Comparing Research Methods

Research Method Basic Purpose How Conducted What is

Manipulated

Descriptive To observe and Case studies, surveys, Nothing

(Goal: Describe) record behavior and naturalistic

observations

Correlational To detect naturally Computing statistical Nothing

(Goal: Predict) occurring relationships; association, sometimes

to assess how well among survey

one variable predicts responses

Experimental To explore cause Manipulating one or Independent

(Goal: Explain) and effect more IVs and using variable(s)

random assignment

to eliminate preexisting

differences among

subjects


Practice hypothesis testing
Practice: Hypothesis Testing

  • Drug A makes children more attentive in school

  • The larger the family, the duller the children

  • Cigarette smoking causes lung cancer

  • Television violence is related to aggression in children

  • Absence makes the heart grow fonder


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