Chapter 1
1 / 33

Chapter 1 Psychological Science - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Chapter 1 Psychological Science. What is Psychology?. the science of behavior and mental processes. Psychology’s Current Perspectives. Perspective Focus. Neuroscience How the body and brain create emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 1 Psychological Science' - jaden

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Chapter 1

Psychological Science

What is psychology
What is Psychology?

the science of behavior and mental processes

Psychology s current perspectives
Psychology’s Current Perspectives

Perspective Focus

Neuroscience How the body and brain create emotions, memories, and

sensory experiences

Evolutionary How nature selects traits that promote the perpetuation of

one’s genes

Behavior How much our genes, and our environment, influence our

genetics individual differences

Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and


Behavioral How behavior is learned

Cognitive How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information

Social-cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and


Current perspectives
Current Perspectives


  • Neuroscience How the brain creates emotions, thoughts, and behaviors

  • Evolutionary How nature selects traits

    that promote survival of

    our genes

Current perspectives1
Current Perspectives


  • Behavior Genetics How much our genes

    are responsible for

    individual differences

  • Psychodynamic How behavior springs

    from unconscious drives

    and conflicts

Current perspectives2
Current Perspectives


  • Behavioral How we learn observable


  • Cognitive How we encode, process,

    store and retrieve


Current perspectives3
Current Perspectives


  • Social-cultural How social situations and culture influences behavior and thought

  • Eclectic Drawing from two or more of the perspectives to explain behavior or thought processes

Psychology vs psychiatry
Psychology vs. Psychiatry

  • Clinical Psychology (Ph.D)

    • a specialty in psychology

    • clinical psychologists

    • uses psychotherapy to treat psychological disorders

  • Psychiatry (M.D.)

    • a specialty in medicine

    • psychiatrists

    • may prescribe medication and use psychotherapy

The scientific method


lead to

generate or refine

research and



The Scientific Method

Scientific method
Scientific Method

  • Goal is good theory

    • theories explain behavior

  • Science guards against

    • faulty explanations

    • hindsight bias

Faulty explanations intuition and the hot streak
Faulty Explanations Intuition and The Hot Streak

Hindsight bias
Hindsight Bias

  • tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

  • the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon

The scientific method1
The Scientific Method

  • Theory

    • a general explanation as to why a behavior occurs

  • Hypothesis

    • a testable prediction

    • often derived from a theory

    • Example: I predict A will cause B

The scientific method2


lead to

generate or refine

research and



The Scientific Method

The scientific method3
The Scientific Method

  • Operational Definition

    • a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables

    • for example, intelligence may be operationally defined as “what an intelligence test measures”

The scientific method4
The Scientific Method

  • Replication

    • repeating the procedures of a research study with another sample of participants

    • to see whether the results are also repeated

Types of scientific methods
Types of Scientific Methods

1. Case Study

2. Survey

3. Naturalistic Observation

4. Correlation Coefficient

5. Experiment

Types of scientific methods1
Types of Scientific Methods

1. Case Study

  • in depth observation of one person in hopes of revealing universal laws

Types of scientific methods2
Types of Scientific Methods

2. Survey

  • a questionnaire about attitudes or behavior given to a sample of people

A key distinction population versus sample
A Key Distinction: Population versus Sample

  • Population

    • a specific group of interest to the researcher (e.g., all children!)

    • a sample is drawn from a population

Drawing a sample
Drawing a Sample

  • Male subjects, neurosis, and sex!

Good samples
Good Samples

  • Representative Sample

    • a sample that is a perfect reflection of a population, only smaller in size

  • Random Sample

    • a sample that fairly represents a population because each member of the sample had an equal chance of being chosen

Types of scientific methods3
Types of Scientific Methods

3. Naturalistic Observation

  • observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations, trying not to manipulate the situation

Types of scientific methods4
Types of Scientific Methods

4. Correlation Coefficient

  • a measure that shows the extent to which two variables change together

  • good for prediction

  • Note: correlation does not imply causation!

Correlation and causation


Low self-esteem





could cause

Low self-esteem


Low self-esteem


Distressing events

or biological


could cause



Correlation and Causation

  • Three possible cause-effect relations

could cause

Types of scientific methods5
Types of Scientific Methods

5. Experiment

  • a procedure for identifying the causes of behavior

  • all experiments have two variables:

    • Independent Variable: variable manipulated by a researcher

    • Dependent Variable: observed consequence of IV on some behavior or mental process

The dependent variable
The Dependent Variable

  • Dependent Variable

    • the variable that is being measured

    • value of DV depends on value of IV


  • Experimental Group

    • these participants are exposed to the independent variable (treatment)

  • Control Group

    • these participants do not receive the independent variable

    • is a comparison group we use to be able to see the effect of the independent variable (treatment)

  • Note:the measure (DV) is taken for both groups


  • Random Assignment

    • assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance

    • minimizes preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups


  • Placebo

    • an inert substance (e.g., sugar pill) instead of an active agent (e.g., drug)

    • placebo is administered to see if it triggers the same reaction as the active agent (IV)

  • Placebo Effect

    • any effect on behavior caused by a placebo


  • Single-blind Procedure

    • Research participants don’t know if they are getting the placebo or active agent.

  • Double-blind Procedure

    • Participants don’t know ….

    • Also, research staff doesn’t know (blind) who is getting the active agent vs. placebo

The scientific method5
The Scientific Method

Comparing Research Methods

Research Method Basic Purpose How Conducted What is


Descriptive To observe and Case studies, surveys, Nothing

(Goal: Describe) record behavior and naturalistic


Correlational To detect naturally Computing statistical Nothing

(Goal: Predict) occurring relationships; association, sometimes

to assess how well among survey

one variable predicts responses

Experimental To explore cause Manipulating one or Independent

(Goal: Explain) and effect more IVs and using variable(s)

random assignment

to eliminate preexisting

differences among


Practice hypothesis testing
Practice: Hypothesis Testing

  • Drug A makes children more attentive in school

  • The larger the family, the duller the children

  • Cigarette smoking causes lung cancer

  • Television violence is related to aggression in children

  • Absence makes the heart grow fonder