Canine first aid emergency care
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CANINE FIRST AID & EMERGENCY CARE First Aid Procedures Approaching the victim, survey the scene for safety and clues Initial assessment Get first aid materials (kit) Call for help, telephone ahead to animal hospital First Aid Procedures Restraint of dog Transport

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CANINE FIRST AID & EMERGENCY CARE


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First Aid Procedures

  • Approaching the victim, survey the scene for safety and clues

  • Initial assessment

  • Get first aid materials (kit)

  • Call for help, telephone ahead to animal hospital


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First Aid Procedures

  • Restraint of dog

  • Transport

  • First aid for specific injuries

  • Contents of first aid kit and how to use them.




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HEAT STROKE

  • Usually occurs in animals exposed to a high environmental temperature and exposed to stress (confinement in a car, overexertion, Malignant Hyperthermia)

  • Overweight animals as well as geriatric or infant are more prone to heat stroke

  • Rectal temperature can reach 105 -110 (normal = 99.5 - 102.2)


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HEAT STROKE

  • Alters functions of all body organs, causes cell death and kidney failure, shock

  • Excess panting leads to changes in body pH and electrolyte abnormalities as well as brain swelling and death


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HEAT STROKE

SYMPTOMS:

  • Excess panting

  • Weakness, collapse

  • Rectal temp > 105

  • Irregular heartbeats

  • Possibly dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, lack or urine output

  • Possibly seizures


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HEAT STROKE

FIRST AID TREATMENT:

  • Lower body temperatureby immersing animal in cold water or putting cold compresses or packs on the animal (especially in the groin, neck, chest areas)

  • Attempt to get a rectal temp of 102 within 30 - 60 minutes

  • Monitor rectal temp every 2 to 5 minutes so as not to overcool the animal

  • Stop cooling when temp = 103

  • Transport ASAP to hospital where animal will be put on IV therapy


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BURNS: THERMAL

SYMPTOMS:

  • Redness

  • Blistering

  • Charred skin

  • Singed hair coat


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BURNS: THERMAL

FIRST AID TREATMENT:

If skin is broken and blistered

DO *NOT* apply ice, water, or ointment!

DO apply sterile non-adherent bandage (second skin) and transport

If skin is not broken and blistered,

Apply ice packs or cold water compresses followed by an anesthetic cream (lanacaine)


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BURNS: CHEMICAL

CHEMICAL BURN SYMPTOMS:

  • If fur present it may feel like thickened area under the hair coat

  • Animal may lick or scratch at the area

  • Skin may be red, blistered


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BURNS: CHEMICAL

FIRST AID TREATMENT:

  • Flush areas with copious amounts of water (5 minutes!) even if the skin is broken

    Water dilutes the chemical and helps to flush it away from the skin

  • Pad the area with wet gauze and transport ASAP

  • Try to ID the chemical

  • Do *NOT* apply topical meds

  • Do *NOT* let animal lick the area

    It can lead to burns of the mouth and throat

  • If burn occurs near or in the eyes, flush with sterile saline (contact lens solution)


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ELECTRICAL BURNS

**** YOUR SAFETY MUST COME FIRST ****

  • Usually results from chewing electrical cords or being struck by lightening

  • Affects local tissues as well as the heart


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ELECTRICAL BURNS

SYMPTOMS:

  • May be local tissue (if chewing a cord) of the mouth or may involve deep underlying tissues

  • Full extent of tissue injury may not be evident for several weeks when all of the burned tissue sloughs off

  • May have initial swelling as well as pulmonary edema

  • May have affected heart rate and rhythm

  • May be unconscious, not breathing, and/or without a heartbeat


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INSECT BITES

  • Includes bees and hornet type flying bugs, ants, spiders

  • Can cause an allergic reaction, locally or systematically


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INSECT BITES

FIRST AID TREATMENT:

1. Locate stinger and remove with tweezers

2. Apply ice pack or cold compress

3. Monitor for infection (red skin maybe with some swelling)

4. If in doubt, check it out!

5. Monitor breathing and possibility of swelling around the face and neck or possibly hives

6. Treat these initially as a systemic allergic reaction with possibility of anaphylaxis by giving Benadryl

7. Transport ASAP if systemic reaction is occurring


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INSECT BITES

8. Watch for symptoms of toxicity over the next few days including:

Excess salivation

Irritated skin areas

Painful areas

Fever

Rapid or difficult breathing

Paleness to gums

Vomiting or diarrhea

Blood in urine

Stiffness or paralysis


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TICKS

  • Can carry diseases such as Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Lyme, Ehrlichia, and Babesiosis

  • Ticks embed only their mouth parts into the skin. It is not possible for a tick’s head to get left behind in the animal’s skin but it is possible for the area to become infected or irritated and swollen. Mouth parts may be left in bite area. They are “glued” into the skin when the tick attaches


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TICKS

FIRST AID TREATMENT:

**** Best treatment is prevention****

Use flea/tick topical drops or sprays and check the animal over after every trip into the fields or woodlands***** Vaccination is helpful in high risk areas

1. Pull the tick with constant pressure using tweezers if possible. “Ticked OFF”

2. If available, apply flea and tick spray first

3. Do *NOT* burn or apply any other chemicals to the tick while it is in the animal’s skin

4. Avoid touching the tick with your bare hands and flush it down the toilet

5. Apply antibiotic ointment to the area if you would like


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TICKS

LYME DISEASE

Is a bacterial infection transmitted to the animal via the deer tick, which is very small, similar in size to the head of a pin

SYMPTOMS May Include:

Fever, shifting lameness, lethargy, poor appetite, kidney disease, ADR (Ain’t doin’ right)


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TICKS

EHRLICHIOSIS

Infection transmitted by Brown dog ticks

SYMPTOMS May Include:

Lethargy, fever, poor appetite, anemia, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding tendencies, ADR


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TICKS

ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER

SYMPTOMS may be vague

Joint pain, hemorrhages, lethargy, fever, poor appetite, lameness, ADR


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TICKS

ANAPLASMOSIS

SYMPTOMS: Joint pain, anemia, lethargy, low platelet count. ADR

Formerly known as Ehrlichia Equi


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TICKS

TREATMENT – Need to seek Veterinarian’s help

Usually antibiotics,

Typically Doxycycline.

PREVENTION IS BEST !


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TICKS

BABESIOSIS

SYMPTOMS

Blood parasite. Anemia, low platelets, may mimic autoimmune disease, bleeding, hemolytic anemia, kidney failure.

TREATMENT Imidocarb An antibiotic


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SNAKES

***IDENTIFY THE OFFENDING REPTILE IF POSSIBLE***

Non-poisonous: bite wound is usually multi-toothed and painless and usually appears superficial

FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • Clip hair, clean wound with iodine type soap (Betadine)

  • Apply dry sterile bandage

  • Seek veterinary help (not an emergency) for antibiotic treatment as snakes have an extensive bacterial flora in their mouths!

  • Observe animal closely for 6 hours, especially if the species of snake is unknown



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SNAKES

Poisonous: 3 groups of venomous snakes in North America

Pit vipers, coral snakes, and colubrids

  • Allare dangerous - lethality dependent upon toxicity and amount of venom,

  • Size and health of victim, time delay between envenomation and medical intervention

  • Pit viper includes water moccasin, cottonmouth, copperhead, and rattlesnake

  • Characterized by a deep pit located between the eye and nostril, elliptical pupils, retractable front fangs


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SNAKES

FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • Get the snake off! Pry it or burn it.

  • Keep animal calm because high heart rate will speed the flow of venom

  • If bite is on a limb, apply a tourniquet 2 - 3 inches above the bite Questionable

  • Should be able to insert 1 finger between tourniquet and animal’s skin

  • If leg swells, loosen the tourniquet

  • Cut 1/2 inch through each puncture Not Recommended


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SNAKES

  • Flush wound and squeeze or suction

  • Clean with betadine and lots of water

  • Cold pack (ice) Not recommended in people

  • Transport ASAP

  • If bite is not on a limb keep animal calm, and transport

  • Animal may develop respiratory distress or digestive upset and may become depressed, paralyzed, comatose or may even die en route


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ANIMAL FIGHTS / BITES

AVOID THEM!

Keep a close eye on your animal using a leash except when working. Watch for the approach of other animals whose owners are not as watchful. Watch the behavior of the two animals!

If a fight occurs, do *NOT* put anything that bleeds between the dogs.


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ANIMAL FIGHTS / BITES

  • Use a leash or strong stick: place it through the collar of the attacker and twist it so that the collar tightens. He will release his grip. Be prepared to quickly use the stick or a two hand strong arm to keep the animal from turning on you.

  • Use the leash as a noose when one animal has a vice grip on another, shove a stick between his jaws. He will relax only for a moment at which time you must quickly pull him off.


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ANIMAL FIGHTS / BITES

FIRST AID TREATMENT:

  • Thoroughly go over the animal looking for punctures, tears, or matted fur

  • Clip the hair around the wounds

  • Scrub with a betadine type soap

  • Anything over 1/2 inch should be seen by Veterinarian

  • Bites on head, limbs, and genitalia or from a larger animal may have more serious “crushing” injuries, which will severely damage underlying tissues

  • Have it checked out! Many doctors will prescribe antibiotics


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FRACTURES

  • Generally associated with trauma

  • Must immediately restrict activity

  • May also involve internal bleeding or other life threatening injuries.


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FRACTURES

SYMPTOMS:

  • Obvious break with bone exposed

    => compound or open fracture

  • Non-weight bearing on that limb

  • Swollen limb or area of leg

  • Painful, does not resolve with time

  • Fractures of ribs are usually associated with difficulty breathing


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FRACTURES

FIRST AID TREATMENT:

  • MUZZLE (only if the dog is NOT having trouble breathing, or vomiting) Fractures are VERY PAINFUL

  • Wrap dog in a blanket or a towel to restrict movement

  • Use newspaper folded to gently support the injured limb

  • Place dog on a board, crate pan or crate bottom (Vari-Kennel) and transport ASAP


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TORN EARS AND HEMATOMAS

  • Result from barbed wire, fighting

  • Hematoma = hemorrhage under the skin, usually results from severe head shaking (itchy ears)

  • Torn ears will bleed profusely

  • Head shaking leads to more bleeding


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TORN EARS AND HEMATOMAS

FIRST AID TREATMENT:

  • Cold wet compresses applied quickly and firmly to ear flap (ice)

  • Bandage up over the head - bandage right around the head and neck (not too tight!)

  • If hematoma, see a Veterinarian for treatment (not an emergency)


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FISH HOOK INJURIES

  • Ingested: Do not pull on line! It is likely to get caught and do internal damage. Go to Veterinarian, ASAP

  • In lip, mouth or body. Push hook through skin, cut barb with wire cutters, and back rest of hook out.


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BLOAT GDV: GASTRIC DILATATION / VOLVULUS

This is a

** SERIOUS **

Emergency


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BLOAT GDV: GASTRIC DILATATION / VOLVULUS

  • Distention of stomach with gas or fluid or both

  • Rotation of stomach which seals off blood supply = volvulus or torsion depending on the axis of rotation

  • Extreme pain and is fatal if not treated immediately (within 1 hour!)

  • Often traps the spleen as well

  • Causes are many but may include: anatomic predisposition or anomalies, dry food with excess water, exercise closely associated with feeding


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BLOAT GDV: GASTRIC DILATATION / VOLVULUS

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CONDITION:

Blood return to heart decreases, cardiac output decreases, cardiac arrythmias may follow. Toxins build up in the dying tissues of the stomach lining. Liver, pancreas, small bowel are also compromised. Shock from low blood pressure and endotoxins rapidly develops. Sometimes stomach ruptures leading to peritonitis.


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BLOAT GDV: GASTRIC DILATATION / VOLVULUS

SYMPTOMS: May include some or all

  • Attempts at belching

  • Increased gas noises from abdomen

  • Retching or dry heaves

  • Distended abdomen (not always visible)

  • Restlessness, pacing, crying, stretching out on floor

  • Anxiety followed by depression

  • Collapse

  • Whites of eyes get red as blood vessels dilate

  • Increased respiration rate


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BLOAT GDV: GASTRIC DILATATION / VOLVULUS

FIRST AID TREATMENT:

  • Call ahead to hospital so they will be prepared for immediate action and surgery if necessary

  • Veterinarian will attempt to decompress the stomach and treat for shock

    SUGGESTIONS FOR PREVENTION

    (not guaranteed but will increase odds!)

  • Feed two or three small meals daily instead of one

  • Elevate feeding bowls

  • Discourage rapid eating

  • Do *NOT* exercise within 2 hours of a meal

  • Give water in small amounts when associated with food or exercise


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BLEEDING

SYMPTOMS

  • Usually associated with trauma.

  • Flow of blood helps determine origin

    • Spurting-arterial

    • Flowing-venous

  • Blood loss can cause shock and death


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BLEEDING

FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • Direct pressure on the wound with sterile or clean padding

  • Pressure bandage

  • Pressure points, limited to legs hold off artery

  • Tourniquet, last resort if applied must transport ASAP.


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SHOCK

SYMPTOMS

  • Rapid heart rate >160 beats per minute

  • Pale or blue gums

  • General weakness

  • Collapse


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SHOCK

FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • Breathing? Any obstruction to airway?

  • Bleeding? Control

  • Heart rate?

  • Broken bones?

  • Correct worst problem first, CPR, control bleeding

  • Calm animal, keep warm, and transport ASAP


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INJURIES TO THE SKIN

  • Commonly associated with some type of trauma.

  • Lacerations (cuts) from sharp objects

  • Abrasions (scrapes) like road burns

  • Punctures blunt objects, projectiles

  • Burns


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INJURIES TO THE SKIN

SYMPTOMS

  • Damage to skin

  • Openings through skin, exposing tissue below

  • Bleeding


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INJURIES TO THE SKIN

FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • Abrasions: clean area if dirty and apply topical antibiotic

  • Lacerations: clean (irrigate) stop bleeding, protection of area, if sutures are needed to vet.

  • Punctures: cover and protect, stop bleeding, see vet if you believe there is anything inside of wound.

  • Wounds involving chest may compromise respiratory function if chest cavity is invaded. "Sucking" chest wound: Cover with non-porous material, and transport

  • Tail wounds bandage and tape to fur.

  • Sutures usually required if wound is more that 1/2 - 1 inch long or gaping.


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PAD INJURIES

  • Trauma, sharp objects, abrasions,

  • Foreign objects, grass awns, metal, glass

  • Torn or broken nails

    SYMPTOMS

  • Sudden or gradual lameness (could also be higher in leg)

  • Blood from foot


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PAD INJURIES

FIRST AID

  • Pad lacerations: clean and bandage transport to suture if needed

  • Torn nail, clip loose pieces, bandage

  • Abraded pad. Apply protective agent and bandage

  • Foreign objects, thorns, metal, glass remove and bandage


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EYE INJURIES

  • Environmental, wind, water, dust

  • Traumatic, branches, falls

  • Foreign material, dirt, plant material

    SYMPTOMS

  • Eyes red and runny

  • Mucus discharge

  • Squinting

  • Pawing at eye

  • Bluish or gray color to corneal surface


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EYE INJURIES

FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • Rinse eyes if there is no apparent corneal injury

  • Apply topical ophthalmic antibiotic (without Cortisone derivatives)

  • If cornea appears cloudy, blue or cut/scratched/perforated, protect eye from rubbing and further injury (e-collar) and transport to vet for treatment.

  • Foreign material in area around eyeball may be able to be removed with Q-tip


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FOREIGN BODIES

  • Can occur at almost any region of body

  • Porcupine quills, splinters, grass awns (seeds) fishhooks, bones and sticks in mouth.

  • Ears, eyes, skin, in nose, ingested

    SYMPTOMS

  • Obvious object in body part

  • Rubbing eyes, shaking head, lameness

  • Vomiting, diarrhea


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FOREIGN BODIES

FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • Remove foreign object if possible

  • If unable to remove will need to see vet

  • Fish hook: Pad additional hooks before trying to remove. Push barb thru skin and cut barb off. Then back rest of hook out.

  • Clean and apply topical antibiotic.


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ALLERGIC REACTIONS

  • Insect bites / stings

  • Food, dust, toxic plants (nettles)

  • Drugs and chemicals

    SYMPTOMS

  • Itchy, scratching, rashes, urticaria (hives), swelling of head / face / throat

  • Sneezing, runny eyes, reverse sneeze

  • Vomiting, diarrhea,

  • Difficulty breathing


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ALLERGIC REACTIONS

FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • If topical, wash off and apply topical Benedryl or calamine lotion

  • Administer antihistamines, Benedryl (1-2 mg per pound)

  • Vomiting, diarrhea, bland diet and pepto bismol.


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VOMITING AND DIARRHEA

  • Diet

  • Food poisoning

  • Dietary indiscretions


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VOMITING AND DIARRHEA

FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • Take temperature. If over 103, prompt treatment

  • If abdominal pain or "bloating" seek vet ASAP

  • Check for dehydration, gums sticky, skin "tents" when pulled up and released

  • Vomiting, pepto bismol, withhold water for 4-6 hours, food for 6-12 hours

  • Small amounts of water when offered. Wait 30-60 minutes and if no further vomiting, may offer more.

  • Bland diet, boiled Hamburg, chicken or turkey and boiled rice, or pasta. Mix 50:50 and offer small amounts 1/2 - 1 cup at a time.

  • If vomiting and / or diarrhea are protracted, seek veterinary attention.


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DROWNING

SYMPTOMS

  • Not breathing, water immersion, lifeless.

    FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • Artificial respiration, mouth to nose with animal's mouth closed.

  • Compress chest to expel water

  • Check throat for obstruction

  • Keep head down to try to get rid of water.


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CHOKING

  • Rare in animals unless food chunks, foreign material, bones, sticks, grass, water (drowning)

    SYMPTOMS

  • Coughing, gagging,

  • Increased breathing sounds

  • Gasping for breath

  • Sudden collapse, blue gums, no breathing.


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CHOKING

FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • Try to check and clear any material from animal's throat

  • Heimlich maneuver

  • Try to calm animal

  • Artificial respiration / CPR Transport to vet ASAP



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POISONINGS

  • Various sources, ingestion, inhalation

  • Antifreeze

  • Chocolate

  • Dead animals, plants, most animals will not eat caustics. Pest baits

  • Accidental ingestion of prescription drugs

  • Ingestion of contraband

  • Sitting in car or truck with engine running (carbon monoxide)


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POISONINGS

SYMPTOMS

  • None to caustic burns to vomiting and diarrhea.

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Unconsciousness.

  • Depression, cherry red gums, muscle twitch (carbon monoxide)


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POISONINGS

  • Induce vomiting. Hydrogen peroxide 1-2 tbsp (DOG), 1 tsp (Cat) hydrogen peroxide, orally, repeat in 10 minutes up to 3 times. DO NOT USE SALT

  • Delay absorption, egg whites, milk, vegetable oil, and activated charcoal.

  • Wash poison off coat and skin

  • Antifreeze. Induce vomiting; give grain alcohol and transport to vet.

  • Chocolate, contains stimulant that can cause heart failure, seizures

  • Carbon monoxide, move to fresh air, artificial respiration


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SEIZURES

  • Various causes, neurological problem,

  • Can occur from excitement, metabolic problems, drugs, and trauma, organic

  • Brain disorders, infections, high temperature.

    SYMPTOMS

  • Involuntary twitching, stumbling, convulsions, incoordination

  • Animal may seek out owner prior to seizure


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SEIZURES

FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • Try to prevent animal from injuring self or others

  • May try to calm animal down if seizure not severe

  • If temperature high, cool down.

  • If seizures continue, need to transport to vet


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HYPOTHERMIA, FROSTBITE

  • Prolonged exposure to cold air and water temperatures

    SYMPTOMS

  • Sluggish

  • Low body temperature

  • Weakness

  • Frostbite, usually on ears, tail, nose


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HYPOTHERMIA, FROSTBITE

FIRST AID TREATMENT

  • Wrap animal in blanket, and warm with gentle heat

  • Frostbite. Warm frozen areas with moist heat.


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FIRST AID KIT

INFORMATION

Your name and emergency contact person as well as your animals

Veterinarian and vaccination history (especially copy of rabies certificate!)


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FIRST AID KIT

  • Gauze sponges 3x3 or 4x4 #30

  • Gauze bandage roll

  • Vet wrap

  • Small pair of panty hose

  • 1-inch adhesive tape

  • Sterile pads such as Telfa

  • Nonstick pads such as Second Skin or New Skin for burns

  • Antibiotic ointment

  • Betadine

  • Rubbing alcohol or alcohol wipes

  • Eye wash or contact lens saline solution for eye rinse


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FIRST AID KIT

  • KY jelly or Vaseline

  • Bandage scissors

  • Tweezers or forceps

  • Hemostats

  • Wire cutters or "Leatherman" tool (has pliers, wire cutters, knife, etc.)

  • Ziploc Baggies for ice packs

  • Old wash clothes for washing big areas

  • Oral syringe

  • Latex gloves

  • Thermal or heat packs

  • Commercial ice packs like those used for sports injuries


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FIRST AID KIT

  • Splints or you can use sticks or newspaper

  • Nail clipper

  • Bulb syringe

  • Rectal thermometer

  • Cotton swabs and cotton balls

  • Safety pins

  • Triangular arm bandage = cravat

  • Razor blade or 22g needle for splinters

  • Skin Stapler


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FIRST AID KIT

MEDICINES:

  • Honey

  • Pepto bismol caplets: 1 caplet per 15lbs

  • Pepto liquid 65 lb dog: 3-4 tablespoons every 6 hrs

  • Benedryl [1-2 mg/lb every 8 hrs] 65lb dog: (2-4) 25mg tabs every 8 Hrs

  • Aspirin [5mg per lb every 12 hrs] (1) 325mg tab per 40 lb, every 12 hrs

  • Hydrogen peroxide (10-30ml) every 10-15 min to induce vomiting

  • Imodium 1 capsule per 40 lbs every 12 hours for diarrhea


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FIRST AID KIT

SUGGESTIONS FOR DOG KIT

CONSULT YOUR VETERINARIAN

  • Ear cleaner such as Chlorhexiderm Flush or Otomax

  • Panalog type ointment for hot spots or ear infections

  • Cortisone type spray such as Hydro Plus

  • Eye ointment for emergencies


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USEFUL INFORMATION

1 TSP = 5 ml

(usually how measurement is made on a syringe)

1 TBSP = 15ml

NORMAL VALUES

Temp. = 99.5 - 102.2 F (Dog) 100-101.5 F (Cat)

Pulse = 60 - 120 beats per minute

Respiration = 14 - 22 per minute


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SKUNK ODOR REMOVAL FORMULA

A formula for neutralizing skunk spray developed by Illinois chemist Paul Krebaum:

1 quart of 3% hydrogen peroxide,1/4 cup of baking soda1 teaspoon of liquid soap.

Apply it to the sprayed areas, then wash off with tap water. The solution must be mixed as needed; it can't be contained in a bottle.


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